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Slavic languages words similarities with Polish


Lyzko 19 | 5,776    
22 May 2015  #91
"nedela" = Russian "week" > "ne" + "dela" = not work vs. "niedziela" = Polish "Sunday"
....ad infinitum!

Ooops! "not" "do". Typo, sorry:-)
OP Vlad1234 10 | 465    
22 May 2015  #92
"nedela" = Russian "week" > "ne" + "dela" = not work vs. "niedziela" = Polish "Sunday"
....ad infinitum!

English - Polish - Russian
Monday - Poniedziałek - Poniedielnik
Tuesday - Wtorek - Wtornik
Wedneday - Środa - Srieda
Thursday - Czwartek - Czietwierg
Friday - Piątek - Piatnica
Saturday - Sobota - Subota

Very different?
Lyzko 19 | 5,776    
23 May 2015  #93
.....Sunday - Vozkresenyie!

And that's similar to Polish????!!
OP Vlad1234 10 | 465    
23 May 2015  #94
Hundred - Sto - Sto
Ten - Dziesięć - Diesiat'
Thousand - Tysiąc - Tysiaća
Two - Dwa, dwójka - Dwa, dwojka
Three - Trzy - Tri
Four - Cztery - Czietyrie
Five - Pięć, piątak - Piat', piatak
Six - Sześć - Sziest'
Seven - Siedem - Siem'
Eight - Osiem - Wosiem'
Nine - Dziewięć,dziewiąty - Diewiat', diewiatyj
Twelve - Dwanaście - Dwenadcat'
etc...

.....Sunday - Vozkresenyie!

Resurrection - Wskrzeszenie - Woskriesienije
Lyzko 19 | 5,776    
23 May 2015  #95
Admittedly, an exception to the list:-)
Crow 147 | 7,398    
  24 May 2015  #96
Linguistics confirms what genetical science founded- that Russian population originates from Poles (and region of what is today`s Poland), while Poles originates from Serbians (region of what is today`s Serbia).
OP Vlad1234 10 | 465    
  24 May 2015  #97
Well, different opinions exist on that matter. One of them:

slav
Lyzko 19 | 5,776    
24 May 2015  #98
A more precient theory has been that in fact the Russians themselves are descendants of Rurik the Slav, curiously enough, the same progenitor of the present-day Swedes:-)
OP Vlad1234 10 | 465    
  25 May 2015  #99
Descendants of Rurik were Rurikovichi - the noble princes. Rurik is Scandinavian name. According to legend he was welcomed by Slavs to rule Novgorod area.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rurik_dynasty
RUR    
25 May 2015  #100
From the 6th century onwards, group of western Slavs moved from Pomerania to the northeast of the Baltic Sea, where they encountered the Varangians of the Rus' Khaganate and established the important regional center of Novgorod.

[quate] Vlad1234 :
Hundred - Sto - Sto
Ten - Dziesięć - Diesiat'
Thousand - Tysiąc - Tysiaća
Two - Dwa, dwójka - Dwa, dwojka
Three - Trzy - Tri
Four - Cztery - Czietyrie
Five - Pięć, piątak - Piat', piatak
Six - Sześć - Sziest'
Seven - Siedem - Siem'
Eight - Osiem - Wosiem'
Nine - Dziewięć,dziewiąty - Diewiat', diewiatyj
Twelve - Dwanaście - Dwenadcat' [/quate]

This is Ok.
BUT !!!
But Polish is more closely related to Czech than to Russian.
Though Polish and Czech have a massive number of false friends words
OP Vlad1234 10 | 465    
25 May 2015  #101
But Polish is more closely related to Czech than to Russian.

Doubtful. Prove it! What languages do you know very well?
RUR    
25 May 2015  #102
It is a wery well known fact in linguistics. Polish and Czech belong to the same west slavic group of languages. What was the reason to include them

into the same group ? Do you think it was geography ?

By the way, I read somewhere that the English speaker does not understand the other german languages any more, so your comparison list is very clever ... haha
OP Vlad1234 10 | 465    
25 May 2015  #103
It is a wery well known fact in linguistics. Polish and Czech belong to the same west slavic group of languages. What was the reason to include them
into the same group ? Do you think it was geography ?

As I've already wrote in one of my posts:
I'm not a professional linguist to do such a statements but in my dilettante opinion division of Slavic lang-s into Western and Eastern is quite vague and conditional. Lexically the Czech is hardly closer to Polish than Russian. Maybe even contra. Use of Latin alphabet, fixed stress pattern (though different between Polish and Czech) and some other small similarities do usually serve as a reason for division. Polish alphabet is not exactly Latin. It uses characters not present in English, for example. Cyrilic alphabet on other hand share some similar characters with Latin. For example: A, B, C, E, H, X, T, O, K, M, P. Ukrainian alphabet does have even "i".

Some distinctive features of the West Slavic languages, as from when they split from the East Slavic and South Slavic branches around the 3rd to 6th centuries AD, are as follows:[3]
development of proto-Slavic tj, dj into palatalized ts, (d)z, as in modern Polish/Czech noc ("night"; compare Russian ночь);
retention of the groups kv, gv as in Polish gwiazda ("star"; compare Russian звезда; but note also Russian цвет vs. Ukrainian квіт, "flower");
retention of tl, dl, as in Polish/Czech radlo/rádlo ("ard"; compare Russian рало);
palatized h (ich-Laut) developed into š, as in Polish musze (locative case of mucha, "fly")

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Slavic_languages

Cropped quote - over 100 words
Lyzko 19 | 5,776    
25 May 2015  #104
Vlad, as a professional linguist, I can linguistically vouch for both the syntactic as well as semantic closeness of Polish with Czech, not that there are not false friend traps galore, e.g. "Obchód na korze", the title of a popular 1966 Czech film! In English, it is translated as "The Shop on Main Street". In Polish, the meaning is, well, rather differentLOL There's of course Polish "szukać" vs. Czech "szukat", Polish "stały" vs. "Czech "staly", Polish "pożar" vs. Czech "pozar" etc... The months are also quite different, yet more Ur-Slavic vs. the latinized Russian equivalents!

On the other hand, certain basic words such as Polish "tydzień" cf. "tyden" in Czech, "Dzień dobry" and "Dobry den" point to a closer day-to-day proximity, not to mention the buzzing sounds of Polish and Czech, compared to the much more exaggerated palatalization of Russian and Ukrainian.

R.U.R. while it is true that the average English speaker faced with a German or Dutch text, having never studied either of those languages, will be as doubtless bewildered as were I too glance casually at "Beowulf" or "Caedmon's Hymn" having never studied Old English, many American -born German students of mine over the years have found German (though NOT Icelandic!!!) much easier to get a superficial handle on than even Spanish or Italian.

Slavic languages words similarities with Polish, is what this thread is about.
OP Vlad1234 10 | 465    
26 May 2015  #105
On the other hand, certain basic words such as Polish "tydzień" cf. "tyden" in Czech, "Dzień dobry" and "Dobry den" point to a closer day-to-day proximity, not to mention the buzzing sounds of Polish and Czech, compared to the much more exaggerated palatalization of Russian and Ukrainian.

Russian ''Dobryj dień'' or ''Dień Dobryj". However Czech pronunciation doesn't sound similar to Polish when you listen to both languages.
Wulkan - | 3,277    
26 May 2015  #106
However Czech pronunciation doesn't sound similar to Polish when you listen to both languages.

It clearly sounds more similar to Polish than to Russian.
Lyzko 19 | 5,776    
26 May 2015  #107
Vlad' ol' man, NO OTHER Slavic language sounds like Polish!! The others all lost the nasals, plus Slovene and Czech both retained their long vs,.short vowels:-)
Polonius3 1,001 | 12,489    
26 May 2015  #108
Did you or someone else mention that the Russians had a slang term for the Polish language referring to all its szcz-type sounds.
Lyzko 19 | 5,776    
26 May 2015  #109
Not only the Russians, Polonius:-) The Croats, Serbs and other Southern Slavs constantly tease the Polish for their hissing sibilant combosLOL
Polonius3 1,001 | 12,489    
26 May 2015  #110
So what's the Russian or other-Slavic slang for that? BTW to Poles it is Czech that sound's the most ridiculous. There was even a humorous song about it years ago called "Laska nebeska".
Lyzko 19 | 5,776    
  26 May 2015  #111
If I were to translate that word for word into Polish, I'd get "łaska niebieska" or "the/a blue walking stick"!

:-)
Polonius3 1,001 | 12,489    
26 May 2015  #112
They were making fun out of the Czech word for love -- laska. And the actor (Rosiewicz I believe) actually appeared on stage with a blue stick.
OP Vlad1234 10 | 465    
  26 May 2015  #113
Polish łaska = grace, mercy, pity. Czech laska = love. Russian laska = weasel, kindness. However Polish laska = staff, rod, kane.
Actually a Russian word "laska" difficult translate in English. It could be translated for example as "showing a signs of tender attitude".
Lyzko 19 | 5,776    
  26 May 2015  #114
Vlad, only watch out for "łaska" vs. "laska"!! The former means "walking stick". A single slip of a key stroke can either create a different word, and/or type a different word with a wholly different meaning:-)) Cf. "łaski" (walking sticks) and "łąski" (narrow)...

Typo! I "meant" "laska" in Polish.
kpc21 1 | 763    
  26 May 2015  #115
Lyzko, you got caught in the trap :)

łaska - grace
laska - walking stick, but colloquially also a nice looking girl
łąski has no meaning
wąski - narrow

In the Internet Polish people tend to neglect letters like ą, ę, ń and replace them with a, e, n, as it is faster to type them with a keyboard. But łaska is the word in case of which doing so may have fatal consequences :)

In Polish stół is a table, in Russian stuł is a chair :)
Russian uses "western" words for months, like English, while Polish has own ones (except for March and May).

English - Russian (Polish phonetic equivalent) - Polish
January - janwar - styczeń
February - fiewral - luty
March - mart - marzec
April - apriel - kwiecień
May - maj - maj
June - ijun - czerwiec
July - ijul - lipiec
August - awgust - sierpień
September - sjentjabr - wrzesień
October - oktjabr - październik
November - nojabr - listopad
December - djekabr - grudzień

There are similarities between the Slavic languages, but there is also many differences and false friends, even in case of very basic words.

What is correct name for Ash-tree in Polish? Jasień is central or sub-dialectic?

Jesion :) Such things you can always check via Wikipedia.

Many - Mnogo - Mnogo

You can say "mnogo" in Polish, but it isn't a commonly used word. Dużo, wiele - ok, but mnogo? It will be understood, as it comes from mnożyć - to multiply. As an adjective - mnogi - it sounds better, because means something different from duży or wielki (it means the same as liczny - numerous).

In Russian small - malieńkij, in Polish - mały. And maleńki in Polish is diminutive for mały. In Russian it's a normal word.
Lyzko 19 | 5,776    
26 May 2015  #116
Wonder still if the word for ash is related to "jeśień", the word for "autumn"/"fall".
kpc21 1 | 763    
  27 May 2015  #117
Somebody told about the words for dog in Polish and Russian. The basic word for dog in Polish (pies) is male, in Russian (sobaka) is female. And a male dog in English is called pios. It doesn't work the other way round, a b.itch in Polish is suka. But... this word exists also in Russian (and means a "sobaka" which is definitely female). Again, the other way round it doesn't work, there is no word in Polish for a "pies" which is definitely male.

Summing up...

Polish:
pies - a dog, general and male
suka - a dog, female only (a b.itch)

Russian
sobaka - a dog, general and female
pios - a dog, usually male
suka - a dog, female only (like in Polish)
and these are not the only words in Russian for a dog :) Polish has only those two, if we take into account the words which doesn't imply the specific breed (or lack of breed)

Similar situation is in case of cat. In Polish the basic word, used when the gender isn't important, is kot and it's a male word, while in Russian it's koszka and it's a female word. In Polish if you want to specify that your cat is female, you call it kotka or kocica. In Russian, when you want to specify that it's male - I don't know.

Going on, the Polish word for mouse - mysz - is female (even though it doesn't end with -a). The dimunitive form (often used also for a computer mouse) is myszka. So in Polish - on Polish TV, in movies etc. - Mickey Mouse is Myszka Miki. Which suggests that he is... female :)

Wonder still if the word for ash is related to "jeśień", the word for "autumn"/"fall".

I am wondering, what is the origin of the English word fall. Falling leaves? If so, it's the same as in case of listopad (November) :)

For sure jesień is an old Slavic word. In Russian it's similar - osjeń. But about jesion - I have no idea. For sure it has an alternative form, which you already know - jasień - and it gave names many geographical objects in Poland. For example in £ódź there is a small river Jasień.
OP Vlad1234 10 | 465    
27 May 2015  #118
kpc21 writes:

Vlad1234 - Many - Mnogo - Mnogo

Do not retreat to "falsifications". (joke). That's a shame, really.
My list contained:

Multitude - Mnóstwo, mnogość - Mnożestwo, mnogo

Multitude, not "many".

Similar situation is in case of cat. In Polish the basic word, used when the gender isn't important, is kot and it's a male word, while in Russian it's koszka and it's a female word. In Polish if you want to specify that your cat is female, you call it kotka or kocica. In Russian, when you want to specify that it's male - I don't know.

In Russian it is kot as well as in Polish. And personally I do not give preference to kot or koszka if I refer to a cat in general.

Russian uses "western" words for months, like English, while Polish has own ones (except for March and May).

Old Russian names for months were based on Slavic roots and some of them similar to Polish:
February - lutień. April - cwietień. September - Wielieseń.
kpc21 1 | 763    
27 May 2015  #119
It seems that I quoted an item from a list that didn't contain Polish versions of any words, but English, Czech and Russian ones. My fault.

About kot - well to know. My education in Russian finished when I left primary school. But am I right that koszka is also used as a general word?

A male (and only male) cat in Polish is kocur. Are there similar ones in Russian?
Lyzko 19 | 5,776    
  27 May 2015  #120
You're right, Vlad! However, English also knows the more latinate "autumn" (cf. Italian "autuno"), but "fall" surely refers to the falling of leaves (as does the Polish). Interestingly certain Germanic tongues emphasize the cognate 'calque' for "harvest", e.g. German "der Herbst", Dutch "de herfst", Swedish "hoest" etc...

Check out the Czech names for the months.


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