On the other hand if you check the number of hours and different subjects it is visible that he did have much less exercises, lectures and laboratory hours than me.. but who would bother to check..
I would, transcripts are far more interesting than the certificate itself. Even among subjects like biology - what's actually studied is far more important than what the title is.
And before anybody tries to claim that the Matura is the same as A levels, try getting into a British university undergraduate program with just the Matura.
Matura is accepted widely, there's no difference there - it's treated exactly the same as A-Levels and the like.
a four-year BSc (as virtually all BSc courses have a sandwich year) and then an MSc which will probably be two years but might take only one year.
It depends very much on the university - Scottish ones are moving towards a unified system of 3 years plus 1 year of work experience (or 4 years theory), but the English model is still very much based upon 3 years with an optional year of work experience (that counts for nothing).
Masters are usually a calendar year, but there's plenty of 30 week Masters courses out there.