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Some German loan-words in Polish language


Polonius3 1,000 | 12,448
25 Jun 2017  #1
Since Germans constituted the majority of residents in many Polish towns when they were first developing centuries ago, many Polish words denoting municipal affairs, handicrafts, implements, etc. are of German origin. They include rada (council [from German Rat]), burmistrz (mayor [Bürgermeister]), ratusz (townhall [Rathaus]), plac (town square [Platz]), rymarz (leather-worker [Riemer]), ślusarz (locksmith [Schlosser]), śruba (screw [Schraube]), sznur (rope [Schnurr]), etc. In general not only langauge, inventions, tools, concepts, etc. went from West to East and from South to North. To a large extent ecclesiastical terminology was borrowed from Bohemia, Poland's Christianising nation: eg kościół < kostel < castellum (Latin for castle). Other examples include ołtarz, msza and klasztor. Polish has of course also absorbed numermous latinisms, italianisms, turkism, magyarisms, gallicisms and anglicisms.
delphiandomine 83 | 17,626
25 Jun 2017  #2
Now, this is a truly interesting topic Polonius!

Yes, it's fascinating that Polish took so much legal and political words from German. It seems that Polish was responsible for passing rada onto other Slavic languages too, though the South Slavic languages didn't use it. English now seems to be playing the same role, and I notice plenty of odd things being used now in Polish. For instance, the other day, I saw "strefa chillout" - eh?

I assume the word "handlarz" comes from the German Händler?

Polish as a language seems to have an incredibly rich vocabulary in terms of foreign influences, probably reflecting the reality of the country at the crossroads of Europe.
OP Polonius3 1,000 | 12,448
25 Jun 2017  #3
incredibly rich vocabulary

I think it would be fascinating if someone took an excerpt of some literary work or a page from a textbook, indicating which nation had provided which loanword. Myself, I'm too lazy to tackle such a proejct.
OP Polonius3 1,000 | 12,448
25 Jun 2017  #4
handlarz"

Indeed, and handel was taken over intact. Your strefa chillout is all the more interesitng in that strefa probably comes from German Streif (sector, strip, orignally a swathe of sheet-metal).
RubasznyRumcajs 5 | 462
25 Jun 2017  #5
don't forget about the szlauch (from Schlauch- hosepipe), kartofel/kartofle (from italian tartufo via german Kartoffel); szaber (from schaben)- to loot.
Wulkan - | 3,251
25 Jun 2017  #6
I assume the word "handlarz" comes from the German Händler?

There are thousands of words borrowed from German in Polish language
OP Polonius3 1,000 | 12,448
25 Jun 2017  #7
borrowed from German

Not only from Germna. Have a look at this:
angielski3593
francuski5889
grecki 4096
łaciński5806
niemiecki2978
włoski1250
sjp.pwn.pl/slowniki/S%C5%82ownik%20zapo%C5%BCycze%C5%84%20niemieckich%20w%20polszczy%C5%BAnie.html
Wulkan - | 3,251
25 Jun 2017  #8
niemiecki2978

In Silesia there are over 5000 words of German origin.
OP Polonius3 1,000 | 12,448
25 Jun 2017  #9
In Silesia

Probably it's much the same in Kashubia.
delphiandomine 83 | 17,626
25 Jun 2017  #10
Have a look at this:

Wow, it's so high?

I've always found some Polish words to be much nicer than others - for instance, pomidor rather than rajče or paradižnik.
jgrabner 1 | 67
25 Jun 2017  #11
there has been a whole book written about that subject but here is a first collection:
pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germanizm


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