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Some German loan-words in Polish language


Polonius3 989 | 12,348
25 Jun 2017 #1
Since Germans constituted the majority of residents in many Polish towns when they were first developing centuries ago, many Polish words denoting municipal affairs, handicrafts, implements, etc. are of German origin. They include rada (council [from German Rat]), burmistrz (mayor [Bürgermeister]), ratusz (townhall [Rathaus]), plac (town square [Platz]), rymarz (leather-worker [Riemer]), ślusarz (locksmith [Schlosser]), śruba (screw [Schraube]), sznur (rope [Schnurr]), etc. In general not only langauge, inventions, tools, concepts, etc. went from West to East and from South to North. To a large extent ecclesiastical terminology was borrowed from Bohemia, Poland's Christianising nation: eg kościół < kostel < castellum (Latin for castle). Other examples include ołtarz, msza and klasztor. Polish has of course also absorbed numermous latinisms, italianisms, turkism, magyarisms, gallicisms and anglicisms.
delphiandomine 88 | 18,094
25 Jun 2017 #2
Now, this is a truly interesting topic Polonius!

Yes, it's fascinating that Polish took so much legal and political words from German. It seems that Polish was responsible for passing rada onto other Slavic languages too, though the South Slavic languages didn't use it. English now seems to be playing the same role, and I notice plenty of odd things being used now in Polish. For instance, the other day, I saw "strefa chillout" - eh?

I assume the word "handlarz" comes from the German Händler?

Polish as a language seems to have an incredibly rich vocabulary in terms of foreign influences, probably reflecting the reality of the country at the crossroads of Europe.
OP Polonius3 989 | 12,348
25 Jun 2017 #3
incredibly rich vocabulary

I think it would be fascinating if someone took an excerpt of some literary work or a page from a textbook, indicating which nation had provided which loanword. Myself, I'm too lazy to tackle such a proejct.
OP Polonius3 989 | 12,348
25 Jun 2017 #4
handlarz"

Indeed, and handel was taken over intact. Your strefa chillout is all the more interesitng in that strefa probably comes from German Streif (sector, strip, orignally a swathe of sheet-metal).
RubasznyRumcajs 5 | 498
25 Jun 2017 #5
don't forget about the szlauch (from Schlauch- hosepipe), kartofel/kartofle (from italian tartufo via german Kartoffel); szaber (from schaben)- to loot.
Wulkan - | 3,185
25 Jun 2017 #6
I assume the word "handlarz" comes from the German Händler?

There are thousands of words borrowed from German in Polish language
OP Polonius3 989 | 12,348
25 Jun 2017 #7
borrowed from German

Not only from Germna. Have a look at this:
angielski3593
francuski5889
grecki 4096
łaciński5806
niemiecki2978
włoski1250
sjp.pwn.pl/slowniki/S%C5%82ownik%20zapo%C5%BCycze%C5%84%20niemieckich%20w%20polszczy%C5%BAnie.html
Wulkan - | 3,185
25 Jun 2017 #8
niemiecki2978

In Silesia there are over 5000 words of German origin.
OP Polonius3 989 | 12,348
25 Jun 2017 #9
In Silesia

Probably it's much the same in Kashubia.
delphiandomine 88 | 18,094
25 Jun 2017 #10
Have a look at this:

Wow, it's so high?

I've always found some Polish words to be much nicer than others - for instance, pomidor rather than rajče or paradižnik.
jgrabner 1 | 73
25 Jun 2017 #11
there has been a whole book written about that subject but here is a first collection:
pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germanizm
Chash
4 Jan 2023 #12
As of now, there are probably more than 10 000 Anglicisms used on a regular basis in Polish (although the use varies quite considerably depending on the age of the person, with younger people being naturally much more fluent in English than the older generations who are still more fluent in Russian or some in German). It all really kicked off in the 2010s when more and more people started using the Internet, and now with over 90% of the population having access to the Internet, I expect to see even more loanwords from English being adopted in the upcoming years. Tbh, I don't know how to feel about it. On the one hand, I am a linguist so descriptivism is the only scientific approach that can be taken when dealing with languages, but on the other hand, I don't really like the English language. Maybe it's about too much exposure to it, after all, English is literally everywhere and it can be annoying at times, but I get it, it is an international language. But I'd really rather have new loanwords from German (probably my favourite language in the world, together with Hungarian and Estonian) or French, or Italian (both of which I also really like, mainly due to their pleasant sound) than from English. It's just become so bland.
Ziemowit 14 | 4,255
4 Jan 2023 #13
there are probably more than 10 000 Anglicisms used on a regular basis in Polish

How did you work out this number?
jon357 75 | 22,638
4 Jan 2023 #14
It's just become so bland.

More the fault of those who try to use English words in their own language, including Polish. The English language is among the most descriptive, rich and nuanced in the world with twice the vocabulary of French and a far larger lexical corpus than either Polish or German).

It is of course the native language of a rich and complex culture rather than being the dilly boy of languages as some ill-use it. Not but what, it is also very accessible to second language speakers, at least on a basic level.

Sadly some second-language users bastardise it, including nowadays in Poland. The worst examples are perchance "tipsy" (which is actually an adjective used to describe someone who is between slightly drunk and drunk) and the especially banausic term "trainings" which simply doesn't exist naturally (since "training" is of course an uncountable noun).

There are other examples of this habit like "B2B' which seems to be used in Poland instead of "freelance" or using the word "company" to describe a freelance worker who registered their activity with the inland revenue..
Lyzko 45 | 9,518
4 Jan 2023 #15
Among lesser educated dialect speakers from the former Silesia, it's apparently still common to use German-altered loan words instead of "pure" Polish one, for example BANA instead of POCIAG etc..
Lenka 5 | 3,524
4 Jan 2023 #16
It's not former Silesia. It is Silesia.

And your example has not that much to do with word borrowing and more to do with people speaking Silesian. And has nothing to do with education.
Lyzko 45 | 9,518
5 Jan 2023 #17
Admittedly though, the less highly schooledcwould undoubtedly eschew extreme dialect usagecin their daily speech.
However, perhaps the relationship of locals toctheir own homeland regionalisms is slightly differentcfrom that in Northern Germany.


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