Romanian is the only Romance tongue extant which has the old Latin case system:-)
In fact Romanian has 3 cases:
- Latin accusative which works also as nominative,
- Latin dative working also as genitive,
- Slavic vocative.
Romanian is probably the most mixed language and is very interesting for the researchers.
First etymological dictionary of Romanian from 1870s by A. Cihac listed:
- 2350 words with Slavic origin,
- 1150 Latin/Romance,
- 950 Turkish,
- 650 Greek,
- 600 Hungarian,
- 50 Albanian.
In XIX century it was written in Cyrillic script (the only Romance language I suppose). However there were many language engineering afterwards to make the language cleaner and closer to Latin and Romance counterparts - especially French.
Even the name of the language was lifted up. In XIX century it was called rumîneasca
what sounded very Slavic (in Russian it was rumynskiy
, Polish rumuński
). To make it sound more Roman a special letter (â) was introduced and now you have limba română
. Many words were reconstructed or invented basing on Latin stems.
Yes, of course German has only three genders as well. Can't think in fact of any language which has more, can anyone?? (Disregard the rest of my text)
Baltic and Slavonic languages have 7 cases, Sanskrit and Indian languages have 8 direct cases and some oblique ones made with postpositions, Lezgian - 54 cases, Tsez - 64, Hungarian - 29 or so.