Hipis: One of the most well known must be Miller. I don't know how prevalent the name is in Poland but it's definitely not of Polish origin.
You can blame the Scottish that hung around this part of the world in the 16th century for that ;)
Miller could come from anywhere as it is also a German surname (spelled both Miller and Müller), as well as English, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, ...
But there are other less known Polonized Scottish names, used by persons currently living in Poland - as confirmed by Moi Krewni database:
136 Brun, from Brown
489 Drews, from Drew
64 Frybes, from Forbes
3121 Gawin, from Gavin
(Oh, no - ruining the -owicz Jewish claim again :-))
105 Gorski, from Gore. (As opposed to about 45,000 Polish Górski/Górska , from góry, mountains)
8 Loson, from Lawson
9 Lendze and Lenze, from Lindsay
338 Ryt, from Reid
64 Rossek, from Ross
6210 Rusek, from Ross or from Slavic Rusek
102 Szynkler, from Sinclair
4398 Szmidt, possible from Smith but mostly from Schmidt
796 Wajer, Weir
Other Scottish names, known from historical documents, which are not confirmed by "Moi Krewni" database, are:
Argiel <= Argyle, Czamer <= Chalmers, Czochran <= Cochrane, Dasson <= Dawson, Driowski <= Drew, Hebron <= Hepburn, Dziaksen <= Jacson, Machlajd <= Macleod, Ramze <= Ramsey, Tajlorowicz <= Taylor, Tamson <= Thompson
There is interesting paper "The 1651 Polish Subsidy to the Exiled Charles II By ANDREW B. PERNAL, Professor of History, Brandon University, and ROSANNE P. GASSE, Associate Profesor of English, Brandon University", available in PDF format.
The appendix 2, taken from Polish archives, lists about 500 Scots (and some English), that volunteered (or rather were forced by King Jan Kazimierz and the Polish Diet) to pay the tithe (1/10 of their worth) in support of Charles II. Why only 500 names, when the number of Scots in Poland, Royal Prussia, Ducal Prussia and Lithuania was estimated then at 50,000 is another issue. And why some could only afford few florens (1 floren = 1 zloty; 1 ducat = 3 thalers = 6 zlotys), while the richest of them were not listed at all is yet another story. And there is also a sad story of all that money being appropriated by one of the Charles II officials.
But the point is that the appendix 2 was prepared by many local tax collectors, and the Scottish names were written down the way the collectors handled them: some in good English, some in Polonized version.
The appendix 3, translates all those names, such as Gaspar Czamers, into modern English. But dozen of them escapes this categorization. And here is why:
Andrzych-owicz, John => Patronymic, not clue as to his surname. (again the -owicz pattern, :-))
Danielczyk, Matthias => Probable Polonization of Daniels or Danielson
Dziakowski, Albert => From Deacon, Deakin, or Deakan
Jerzewicz, Sebastian => Patronymic. He was the son of the deceased George Anderson, a burgher from Dobrzyń.
Pacierznik, Andrew => It might have been derived by folk etymology from "pacierz" (prayer) to produce an equivalent of Prior or Pryor
Papuga, Catherine => Equivalent of Parrat(t) or Parrot(t).
Skórdziak, David => May have been derived from "skóra" (leather) to produce equivalent of Skinner, Tanner or Tawer
Stróżewski, Daniel => May have been derived from "stróż", guard, watch" as an equivalent of Guard or Gate.
Sutorowska, Agnes; Sutorowski, Thomas => Polonized Souter.
Zarejski, Peter => It may be a Polonization of Prey, Quarry, or MacQuarrie - from "żer", prey