The maps jon posted are great, however they don't put the partitions in context. Second map shows only
the situation in 1795, after the 3rd partition.
For some reason I couldn't find any good
maps showing the partitions on the outlines of present-day borders (by "good" I also mean the resolution).
A bit of google search and I only have those:1
. Phases of partitions and the situation in 1795
. As you can see, none of the present-day Poland
was under the Russian rule:
Here's a good map (in Polish) with names of the most important locations:2
. Then the Duchy of Warsaw was established (1807-1815
), created by Napoleon Bonaparte:
Duchy of Warsaw (Księstwo Warszawskie) again:3
. After 1815
it lost a significant territiorial area to Prussia as shown in the German map below (it became the Grand Duchy of Posen)
and turned into a Russian protectorate. In this phase it was also a duchy but to differ it from the previous phase it was called Congress Poland
and was meant to be an autonomy state, but de facto
was functioning as a puppet state and later was oficially annexed by the Russian Empire (after the 1863
it was usually called 'Vistula Land'
and (from the link) "in the 1880s, the official language was changed to Russian, and Polish was banned both from official use and education".
Here are maps that show the situation in relation to the present-day borders and a map of Polish borders after the 1st World War:
There's much more to that and yes - the borders were kind of always changing
in the 19th century. That period of time was well described by Norman Davies in the volume II of his 'God's Playground
' book (a huge publication but strongly recommended
to anyone who wants to learn about Polish history!)