There are also some soups like barszcz czerwony, a beetroot soup and mushroom soup
A lot of these soups will be based on meat broth...
And things like little bits of skwarki (little bits of fried pork skin) might be dribbled over otherwise vegetarian dumplings (this happened to a friend who explicitly said 'no meat'... he didn't say 'bez skwarek'... so.....).
But this was a while ago and vegetarianism is a bit more known now. Even Biedronka (largest grocery chain) has vegetarian and vegan products (look for labels like wege, wegański).
There used to be a vegetarian restaurant chain "Green Way" but I haven't seen any lately.
Finally, it should be remembered that in living memory food was not plentiful in Poland (no one starved but having food required effort and forethought in a way that's not an issue now) so the idea of cutting things out of your diet is still pretty suspect to the older generation.