/ Why are Czechs more effective than Poles and Poland?
But Poland is catching up. The distance was much bigger when communism fell.
The answer is simple - in the past, all Czechs were under Austrian control, while half Poland was under Russian control. Austria was better developed than Russia.
Not just that. Russia's policy was always to suck dry the resources of the nations it conquers or dominates, not to put anything in. Remember the wide track rail line (which I believe still exists) from the Soviet Union to southern Poland? For years they were buying coal from Poland for a fraction of the cost. Not to mention things which were stolen from Poland by the Red Army in 1944-45, art work, trains, heavy machinery etc. Same thing in former East Germany, the GDR was building ships (cargo) for the Soviet Union for 45 million dollars a piece, while the cost of building was 140 million!!! The difference was paid by East Germany, constantly losing money on that deal. The only thing Poland got from Russians was the Palace of Culture, and I'm not sure if it wasn't paid for by Poland. Btw, the Czechs got a 3 or 4 time smaller work force than Poland, much easier to find them employment.