An interesting case of Polish heritage in Texas is the village of Pana Maria (the name after Panna Maria, the Virgin Mary). It is thought to be the oldest Polish settlement in the US, dating back to 1854. Though Polish, the settlers came from ... the Prussian Upper Silesian, more precisely from an area near Oppeln (Opole). The area ceased to be part of Poland as early as in 1327 when these lands were made tributary by John of Luxembourg, king of Bohemia, so it is definitely not the question of people inhabiting the territory of the partitioned Poland? According to the views of TheOther
they should undoubtedly be seen as Germans by the census. Yet the reportage of 1996 on the Polish TV showed a significant proportion of them speaking surprisingly fluent Polish
with strong American accent to this very day (the rest lost their Polish through mixed marriages with Americans).
I couldn't have believed it, had I not seen those typical American farmers or breeders with my own eyes on TV talking about themselves as Polish Americans either in a little old-fashioned Polish or in Amercan English. Not a word of German language in their talk, and the letters of their 19th century ancestors written in Polish. Who were they for the Americans: Polish or German?