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Ancient Polish History thread


Kaczor Duck 2 | 95  
30 Sep 2007 /  #31
ty KD.. that will be interesting to read :) thanks Dobranoc

Patrycja
it is before then
it is:
Vol1
the origins to 1795

God's Playground
a history of Poland

by

Norman Davies
Columbia publishing

Polish history in 10 minutes time

Thanks Luksaz
was a good film and education.

Wawryzniec
Patrycja19 63 | 2,699  
30 Sep 2007 /  #32
lukasz that was very informative excellent source of education.
Butter_CJ 1 | 3  
30 Sep 2007 /  #33
The Battle Of Kircholm is my favorite part of Polish history... reminds me of 300 :P
And the Polish Lithuainian Commenwealth is intresting
Grzegorz_ 51 | 6,163  
2 Oct 2007 /  #34
Interesting fact is that Bolesław's sister was a wife of a king of Sweden and Denmark and this way Poles became ivolved in wars against Norway and England.

After Bolesław died, his son Mieszko II Lambert became the king. He expelled his brothers from the country. In 1028 and 1030 he invaded Saxony and took many slaves but in 1031 Poland was attacked by Kieven Rus and by Gerries, who took Milsko and £użyce (now Eastern Germany), Hungarians took away Slovakia from Poland. Mieszko was forced to leave a country and his brother (Bezprym) became a ruler of Poland. Soon later Poles rebeled and killed Bezprym. These were the years of chaos and conflicts. In 1032 Mieszko II came back to Poland but died two years later.

Mieszko II Lambert


isthatu 3 | 1,164  
2 Oct 2007 /  #35
That Kevin Rus and his mate Gerry,what a pair eh....
btw,fascinating stuff guys
Crow 139 | 8,621  
2 Oct 2007 /  #36
Eurola

Thanks Eurola

Few quotations:
Early Slavic Origins
ancientweb.org/Poland/index.htm

in between these peoples were the ancient aboriginal Slavs

Archeology has not as yet determined the western most boundaries of Slavdom. The primitive custom of the Slavs of burning their dead, which lasted throughout the Stone Age and well into the Bronze

The westernmost outposts of the Slavs were very early annihilated by the Teutons, who pushed the Slavs toward the east. This early German "Drangnach Osten" was halted by the Slavic tribes living along the Warthe*, Oder** and Netze*** Rivers, called Poloni by, the early Latin chronicles.

From link that you presented to us we nicely see conclusion of author (no matter all controverses) that Slavs represented native population of Europe and that they very early were target for conquests of hostile neighbors.

Paleolithic Continuity Theory proposed by today already well known Italian historian Mario Alinei, strongly support obvious fact that Slavs were positioned in Europe since time immemorial, in deep past of Europe and much before BC.

PCT
continuitas.com/
continuitas.com/intro.html

(e) The totally absurd thesis of the so called 'late arrival' of the Slavs in Europe must be replaced by the scenario of Slavic continuity from Paleolithic, and the demographic growth and geographic expansion of the Slavs can be explained, much more realistically, by the extraordinary success, continuity and stability of the Neolithic cultures of South-Eastern Europe (the only ones in Europe that caused the formation of tells) (Alinei 2000, fc.b)

Moving west from central Asia, they settled in eastern and southeastern Europe during the 2nd and 3rd millennia BC.

Hire we must be careful

Why?

We must be aware that Slavs were ethnic formation stretched on intercontinental level from deep past and we often speak just about inter-Slavic migrations (newest scientific results suggest that there was no so called great/massive migration in time BC) and not about some cataclysmically penetration on foreigners. Hostile foreigners who penetrated into Slavic world regularly come from direction of west or south. Just later, with arrival of Huns and Mongols, eastern borders of Slavdom were endangered.

It's not questionable that Europe was populated by humans after Near East or Asia was already populated. Only real questions are: precise dating of moment when Europe was populated, who was first and under which conditions Europe was populated (by conquest or in peaceful process). All these questions are under political supervision, for obvious reasons.

See this (also, in connection with Biskupin in Poland)...

The earliest signs of human activity in the basins of the Vistula and Oder date back to about 100 thousand BC. Neanderthal hunters crossed the area, especially present-day southern Poland. The earliest settlements of Homo Sapiens in Poland go back to the Mesolithic Age (8 thousand - 5.5 thousand BC).These settlements were established by migrant peoples belonging to the Danubian Basin Culture.

...the earliest traces of the "Amber Road

Source:
Proto-Slavonic origins
poland.gov.pl/History,319.html

This article also operates with possibility that newcomers from Asia penetrated in Europe and combined with native population.

You know what Slavic autochtonistic theory suggest in case with this (on the base of all that I already sow on topic, I absolutely agree)?

Proto Slavs very early were positioned from Europe, via Eurasia to Asia and Near East. On their historic path they were separated due to constant immigration after Ice Age was finished and, then our ancestors combined in that what would become embryo of modern Slavs. That's how Sarmatians were born.

Now, focus your attention on few maps...

Map of Aryan migration



Philologists can also, moreover, safely conclude that the Aryans must have had kings prior to emigrating from their original homeland in southern Russia.

indhistory.com/aryan.html

Maps of Celtic distribution thru Europe



The green area suggests a possible extent of (proto-)Celtic influence around 1000 BC. The yellow area shows the region of birth of the La Tène style. The orange area indicates an idea of the possible region of Celtic influence around 400 BC.



The Celts in Europe, past and present

Celtic languages were once predominant over much of Europe, with territory largely ceded to expanding Germanic tribes and the invading Roman Empire. Archaeological and historical sources show that at their maximum extent in the third century BC, Celtic peoples were also present in areas of Eastern Europe and Asia Minor.[2]

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celt

Galatia, an ancient region of Asia Minor, was named for the immigrant Gauls from Thrace (cf. Tylis), who settled here and became its ruling caste in the 3rd century BC. It has been called the "Gallia" of the East, Roman writers calling its inhabitants Galli.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galatia

I also recommend this for reading...

Celtic tribes
celticgrounds.com/chapters/appendix/celtic_tribes.htm

This is how journey began

Now guess what's the missed link of this story?

Missed link of this story is Danubian culture with all cultures which developed from her and around her. From Balkan along the Danube River and Black See, thru Panonia, to the Adriatic coast and to the Baltic see.

The term Danubian culture was coined by the Australian archaeologist Vere Gordon Childe to describe the first agrarian society in central and eastern Europe. It covers the Linear Pottery culture (Linearbandkeramik, LBK), stroked pottery and Rössen cultures.

The beginning of the Linear Pottery culture dates to around 5500 BC.

Danubian I peoples cleared forests and cultivated fertile loess soils from the Balkans to the Low Countries and the Paris Basin.

This is the moment when second branch of Proto Slavs reached first branch and combined with her...

A second wave of the culture, which used painted pottery with Asiatic influences, superseded the first phase starting around 4500 BC. This was followed by a third wave which used stroke-ornamented ware.

Danubian sites include those at Bylany in Bohemia and Köln-Lindenthal in Germany

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danubian_culture

If we follow Danubian culture we can learn about interesting things about people who created that culture and from where they come, how thgey live and how they spred with use of agriculture.

Lusatian culture
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lusatian_culture



A simplified map of the central European cultures, ca 1200 BC. The purple area is the Lusatian culture, the central blue area is the Knoviz culture, the red area is the central urnfield culture, and the orange area is the northern urnfield culture. The brown area is the Danubian culture, the blue area is the Terramare culture and the green area is the West European Bronze Age. The yellow area is the Nordic Bronze Age

The Lusatian culture existed in the later Bronze Age and early Iron Age (1300 BC-500 BC) in eastern Germany, most of Poland, parts of Czech Republic and Slovakia and parts of Ukraine.

Numerous Czech (Píć, Niederle, Ćervinka) and Polish (Majewski, Kostrzewski, Kozłowski) authors believed the Lusatians to be Proto-Slavs

Corded Ware culture
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corded_Ware

It encompassed most of continental northern Europe from the Rhine River on the west, to the Volga River in the east, including most of modern-day Germany, Denmark, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Belarus, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, northern Ukraine, western Russia, as well as coastal Norway and the southern portions of Sweden and Finland.

The Corded Ware people are mostly seen as ancestral to Proto-Balto-Slavicin its eastern regions,and to the Centum dialects (i.e. Proto-Germanic, Proto-Celtic and Proto-Italic) in the western parts.

For good night, one article

DID ODIN EXIST?
by Sergei V. Rjabchikov

T. Heyerdahl and P. Lillieström (2001) believe that the Scandinavian god Odin was indeed a Proto-Slavonic king who lived near the Sea of Azov (now it is the Rostov-on-Don region, Russia) in 100 - 200 A.D. Then this king was forced out by the Romans from the area of the Don river and settled down in Scandinavia. This hypothesis is based on the data obtained during the excavations of the Russian-Norwegian archaeological expedition under the leadership of T. Heyerdahl at the town Azov, the Rostov-on-Don region, Russia, in 2001.

a Bosporan name, Ardinzianos (Ardinzian), consists of Scythian/Sarmatian ar 'Aryan', din 'day' and zian 'shine; light; radiance; the sun'; this name signifies 'An Aryan (by name) 'The daylight''. So the Proto-Slavonic name Din 'Day' (cf. the name Odin) might be spread among the Scythians and Sarmatians.

Afterwards this ruler and his warriors were forced out by the Roman and Bosporan troops from the area of the Don river, and then this group of the Proto-Slavs migrated to Scandinavia.

Matyjasz 2 | 1,544  
2 Oct 2007 /  #37
Interesting fact is that Bolesław's sister was a wife of a king of Sweden and Denmark and this way Poles became ivolved in wars against Norway and England.

Yes, Kanuts the Greats mother, Sigrid ( in Polish Świętosława) was the daughter of the first known ruler of Poland, Miszko I, and sister of the first king of Poland, Bolesław Chrobry (Boleslav the Brave). Boleslav even send Kanut some troops during the invasion on British Isles. Nothing significant... It's just an interesting fact. :)

PS: Oh what the hell. Here goes the pic of Boleslav The Breave. :))

Bolesław Chrobry
lemmy - | 1  
6 Oct 2007 /  #38
Here is a very good link about all the tribes in ancient europe
by Sir Isacc Newton that emminent scientist (1642-1727)

gutenberg.org/etext/15784
This is free ebook.

matthew.terramail.pl/frame7034.html
The above site with booklet A Light shines in Poland by RK Mazierski
gives a small account pages 29 to 43 of the Reformation in Poland.

Another Great eBook

books.google.co.uk/books?id=V9wDAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA1&dq=poland#PPA7,M1

Poland: Sketch of Her History : Treatment of the Jews, and Laws Concerning ... By Michael Belina Czechowski
Grzegorz_ 51 | 6,163  
7 Oct 2007 /  #39
Next few years were time of chaos. Pagan rebelion and in 1038 Czech ivasion - many towns including Gniezno were destroyed, Silesia taken by Czechs, Mazowsze (Warsaw area) became indepenednt state.

In 1039 Kazimierz I Odnowiciel (son of Mieszko II) became the ruler of Poland. His reign was a short period of stability. He unified the country taking back Silesia, Mazowsze and parts of Pommerania. Also moved the capital frm Gniezno to Kraków.



Kazimierz I Odnowiciel (born on 25th July 1016, died on 28th November 1058)
ConstantineK 26 | 1,259  
8 Oct 2007 /  #40
Monarchy = Kingdom

NoTo be exact, you are losing sight of such monarchycal titles as DESPOT and TYRANT, previously, both titels, before they become allegorical, were normal titles of monarch in Ancient Greece or Late Byzantine Empire (after 1204).
Grzegorz_ 51 | 6,163  
13 Oct 2007 /  #41
Bolesław Śmiały (1042-1081)

The next one was a son of Kazimierz I Odnowiciel - Bolesław Śmiały (Bolesław II the Bold). He was duke of Poland from 1058 to 1076, and king of Poland from 1076 to 1079. Boleslaw II is considered one of the most talented of the Piast rulers. His main goal was to stop Germanic expansion. He intervened many times in Hungary and Kieven Rus trying to keep in power friendly rulers over there. In a conflict between the pope Gregory VII and emperor Henry IV Bolesław Śmiały supported the pope. Thanks to that Bolesław gained the royal crown of Poland in 1076, along with recognition of the title.

His domestic and foreign opposers set up a plot trying to replace him with his younger brother Władysław Herman. Bolesław arrested and executed the bishop of Kraków, who he believed was the leader of rebels. In result of that murder, the nobles revolted and Bolesław was forced into exile to Hungary, where he died in 1081. He also lost Pomerania, which regained its independence.
Crow 139 | 8,621  
16 Oct 2007 /  #42
Mieszko I

Tell me Grzegorz, what you see hire?

Mieszko Poland

moneta of King Mieszko I, over 1000 year old currency
Grzegorz_ 51 | 6,163  
16 Oct 2007 /  #43
Yes It's denar made during the reign of Mieszko I.
jareck  
16 Oct 2007 /  #44
moneta of King Mieszko I, over 1000 year old currency

do you know what it mens or represents the symbol
Crow 139 | 8,621  
16 Oct 2007 /  #45
do you know what it mens or represents the symbol

Sure, my unknown friend (as, if)

... speaking about picture/coin on our right side (symbol on the edge of coin)

It's a symbol of light, of good, symbol that was created by culture strongly dependent on sun circle, solstice... farming culture.

... ancient symbol of our Slavic ancestors, from time of dignity, when Sarmatian name was universal Slavic name. Symbol which remind us on land of green and land of free, before era of slavery, when nature and positive human values were respected, time of pioneers, ... time before our civilization clashed with overwhelming foes so that today even symbols of our great ancestors represent target for degeneracy of same invaders.

About SWASTIKA we speak, ancient symbol of our ancestors. This is a symbol that belongs to us and it is time that it must be said. Evil Nazi ideology spat and spit on swastika, even metaphysically humiliates us. Enough with humiliation of our culture! THEY don't have right!

Freedom to Sarmatia! Freedom for our history and our future!

There are few more examples of swastika in Polish/Slavic tradition...

Poland Wiking-

White swastika painted on Vikings shield (reenacting, Bielsko-Biaùa, Poland)

Boreyko Coat of Arms

Poland Herbs-

Kroje

 -

Trady

Drogomir

These are szlacheckie herby, meaning the coat of arms for Poland's old nobility.

I can make the logical connection that Poland stopped using the swastyka after nazis have defiled it, stolen and ruined dignity of ancient Slavic symbol.

Today, in time when Nazi ideology strenghten among young Slavic generations we must help to our children and show them level of Nazi delusion. Swastika can be used only as symbol of good, not as symbol of destruction.

Polish medal from 1918, there are many other medals

from Wikipedia (go see also in any other source):

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swastika

For the Slavs the swastika is a magic sign manifesting the power and majesty of the sun and fire

I must add one more comment on this...

As for using swastika by Slavs in modern time - NO, I won`t suggest that. We can only try to protect that symbol and try to expalin true (positive) meaning of it but, it has been deeply hijacked (possible permanently).

People are indoctrinated from birth to hate it and associate it with everything evil.
z_darius 14 | 3,968  
18 Oct 2007 /  #46
Russians and Ukranians, are the same nation. They deverse only by dialects

Not true.

Russians live in Russia, while Ukrainians live in Ukraine. While they share predominantly common ancestry, they use different languages, although the Russian language admittedly does sound like a dialect of the Ukrainian language ;-)
Crow 139 | 8,621  
19 Oct 2007 /  #47
Here are some uniforms of Polish Sarmatians (szlachta):

Jan Zamojski XVI AD
Uniform from XVIII AD
Uniform from XIX AD
Grzegorz_ 51 | 6,163  
21 Oct 2007 /  #48
After Bolesław Śmiały had been expelled in 1079, his brother Władysław Herman took power. Poland was a weak country then. In 1100 he divided the country between his sons Zbigniew and Bolesław. He died in 1102.



Władysław I Herman (1042-1102)
OP Mala_Elf 13 | 17  
23 Oct 2007 /  #49
Thank you for everything you are posting here. I am learning and I am glad to learn.
Koach 16 | 128  
28 Oct 2007 /  #50
I do appreciate your time in posting. I love history and Poland.
Patrycja19 63 | 2,699  
28 Oct 2007 /  #51
as I appreciate those helping me to learn more

Thank you :))
Grzegorz_ 51 | 6,163  
28 Oct 2007 /  #52
I will add more later...

After Władysław Herman had died, the country was divided between his sons Zbigniew and Bolesław. Bolesław III Krzywousty in 1107 united the country and expelled his brother Zbigniew. German king Henry V stood in defense of Zbigniew and in 1109 invaded Poland but was defeated. Zbigniew came back to Poland but on his brother's order was blinded and soon later died. He managed to again conquer all the previously conquered territories, held for a short time, including Pomerania. In 1129 made an aliance with Danmark. He died in 1138. Before his death he divided the country between his sons in this way trying to prevent them from fighting one another. The country was divided into 5 regions. 4 for each of his sons and 5th for the oldest of them, who was going to be the representative of the whole of Poland.

This is the end of early Piasts period. Next is fragmentation.



Bolesław III Krzywousty (1085-1138)
Crow 139 | 8,621  
24 Nov 2007 /  #53
About Celts

There are many debates about Celts and their connections with other ethoses. Seams that nations need to learn to share Celtic heritage among themselves.

But before we start to share our history and stop to confront because of events from past, we need to learn to accept truth, too.

Celts were children of Danube and Danubian cultural and genetic stock. There is no debt in that. This fact, presenting them as part of Proto Slavic world and heritage. With that Celts need to be recognized as one of ancestral branches of Proto Slavs (with that of today`s Slavs, too).

Folowing children of Danubian cultural area and genetic stock ...

Proto Slavic > Celtic > Raetian > Rasna/Rasena (Etruscan) > Slavic - connections

Fragments:

Similarities between the Polish and Irish languages

The following comparison may also apply to Slovene and other Slavic languages,but I compare with Polish, as the Slavic language I know best. The distinction in Polish between ona jest and ona bywa ("she is" and "she habituallyis" or "she is in the habit of being"), i.e. between the present and present habitualtenses, corresponds exactly to the Irish tá sí and bíonn sí. This distinction is not found verbally in English, French or German, but is present in other Celtic languagessuch as Welsh, Breton, Scottish Gaelic, and in otherSlavic languages. There areeffectively 3 forms of the verb "to be", for example:

I am Irish: Is Gael mé.
I am tired: Tá tuirse orm (lit. "is tiredness on me")
I am here every day: Bím anseo gach lá

Welsh, Cornish and Breton and the now extinct Gaulish (the language spoken in France, then called Gaul, before the country wasinvaded by Caesar's Roman legions)

Indeed the medieval Latin word "Scotus" meant simplyan Irish speaker, as evidenced by the name of the 9th century philosopher at thecourt of Charles the Bald, Johannes Scotus Eriugena (Latin "born in Ireland").

A History of the Beam Family", by Prof. Jacob L. Beam of Princeton, published in 1919

padan.org/padan/contentid-40.html

The name Beam is the English spelling [according to the sound] of the German Boehm. Boehm is German for "a or the Bohemian".

Certain Celtic tribes occupied territory south of the Po, the Boii seizing north central Italy and the Senones the coastal area to the S of the Po. In the process of taking these areas the Gauls overthrew the northern Etruscan settlements. They also marched further south, and in about 386 a tribe of Gauls actually captured Rome. Thanks to: C. Mackay.

Rhaetia

answers.com/topic/rhaetia?cat=technology



Raetia (so always in inscriptions; classical manuscripts usually use the form Rhaetia) was a province of the Roman Empire, bounded on the west bythe country of the Helvetii, on the east by Noricum, on the north by Vindelicia, and on the south by Cisalpine Gaul. It thus comprised the districts occupied in modern times by eastern and central Switzerland (containing the Upper Rhine and Lake Constance), southern Bavaria and the upper Danube, Vorarlberg, the greater part of Tirol, and part of Lombardy. The northern border of Raetia was part of the Limes Germanicus, stretching for 166 km along the Danube.

A tradition reported by Justin (xx. 5) and Pliny the Elder (Naturalis Historia, iii. 24, 133) affirmed that they were a portion of that people who had settled in the plains of the Po and were driven into the mountains by the invading Gauls, when they assumed the name of "Raetians" from their leader Raetus; a more probable derivation, however, is from Celtic rait (mountain land). Even if their Etruscan originbe accepted, at the time when the land became known to the Romans, Celtic tribes were already in possession of it and had amalgamated so completely with the original inhabitants that, generally speaking, the Raetians of later times may be regarded as a Celtic people, although non-Celtic tribes (Lepontii, Euganei) were settled among them.




Stone head of ancient warrior

The Etruscan Maremma

florence-concierge.it/earticoli/emaremma.html

Greeks called the Etruscans Tirreni, the Romans called them Tusci or Toscani while they called themselves Raseni and Etruria Rasna. Rasna and the Raseni, or Etruria and the Etruscans

Grzegorz_ 51 | 6,163  
29 Nov 2007 /  #54
Kings and dukes in early Piasts period:

# Mieszko I (960 - 992)
# Bolesław Chrobry (992 - 1025)
# Mieszko II Lambert (1025 - 1031, 1032 - 1034)
# Bezprym (1031 - 1032)
# Otto (1032 - 1033)
# Dytryk (1032 - 1033)
# Kazimierz Odnowiciel (1034 - 1037/1038, 1039 - 1058)
# Bolesław Śmiały (Szczodry) (1058 - 1079)
# Władysław Herman (1079 - 1102)
# Zbigniew (1102 - 1106)
# Bolesław Krzywousty (1102 - 1138)
Crow 139 | 8,621  
29 Nov 2007 /  #55
Searching Polish - Serbian medieval connections

I would just like to share this interesting fact in that the mother of probably Poland's greatest dynasty has Serbian ancestry, particylary- originates from Serbs of Bosnia.

Jadwiga of Poland

Jadwiga Poland-

Jadwiga, Queen of Poland

Jadwiga's sarcophagus, Wawel Cathedral, Kraków

Jadwiga was the youngest daughter of Louis I of Hungary and of Elizabeta Kotromanic of Bosnia and Serbia. Jadwiga could claim descent from the House of Piast, the ancient native Polish dynasty on both her mother's and her father's side. Her paternal grandmother Elisabeth of Cuyavia was the daughter of King Władysław I the Elbow-high, who had reunited Poland in 1320.

NOTE: There is Visegrad town in Bosnia and in Hungary (Slavic connection is obvious)

Tvrtko I of Bosnia of Kotromanic house

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tvrtko_I

Stephen Tvrtko I (Stefan, sometimes translated as Stjepan, Stevan,...) (1338 - 1391) was a ruler of medieval Bosnia. He ruled in 1353-1366 and again in 1367-1377 as Ban and in 1377-1391 as the first Bosnian King. He also took the Serbian crown. Tvrtko was a member of the House of Kotromanić.

Tvrtko I was an able ruler and his state included most of Bosnia as well as the neighbouring territories. He transformed the country from an autonomous banate into an independent and prosperous kingdom. After he became the King, he added the title Stephanos (Stefan, the crowned one), and Miroslav or Mircea.

The title of King Tvrtko was "King of Serbs, Bosnia and the Seacoast.

Note Coat of arms of Serbian Bosnian dinasty (Bosnia was considered one of key Serbian lands in mediaval age). Same coat of arms is today, ironicaly, used as coat of arms of Bosnian Muslims, by dictate of some world powers

Tvrtko's paternal grandmother was Jelisaveta Nemanjic, the daughter of the Catholic Serbian nobleman Stefan Dragutin of Nemanja and his wife the Arpad Princess Katalin, the daughter of the Cuman Koteny Princess christened Elizabeth and her husband Istvan V who was the son of King Bela IV. Tvrtko's maternal great-grandmother was Ursa Nemanjic, Jelisaveta's sister.

NOTE: Nemanjic house was only Serbian Imperial (Carska, Tzar) dinasty. Originaly Namanjc`s were Chatolics but, later taken Orthodoxy. In that time about 35% of Balkan Serbs was Chatolic and 65% Orthodox.

The Polish Winged Hussars

Sobieski at Vienna

Researched and Written by Margaret Odrowaz-Sypniewska, B.F.A.
angelfire.com/mi4/polcrt/WingedHussar.html

The hussar concept began in Serbia, near the end of the 14th century. In the 16th century, painted wings or winged claws began to appear on cavalry shields. Wings were originally attached to the saddle and later to the back. In 1645, Col. Szczodrowski was said to have used ostrich wings.

In 1500, the Polish Treasury books make reference to hussars. Early on, they were foreign mercenaries, and were called Racowie from "Rascia" a word meaning "of Serbia." They came from the Serbian state of Ras.

I saw many Polish riders go by,
They had wings but couldn't fly,
The Poles carry long lances,
A short pennant thereon,
They might instead use a cowtail.
It costs not much and serves just as well.


Most people have heard of the Polish Winged Cavalry/Hussars or Racowie, especially their role in the battle of Grunwald and during lifting of the seige of Vienna. Original concept of Hussars (ultimate military doctrine of that time) came from Serbia to Poland and Hungary, then all over the Europe, to Russia. Whenever Serbs gave something to Poles, they gave them best. Not only to them, to Slavdom, to Europe.

Encyklopedia- Wirtualna Polska

encyklopedia.wp.pl/sz_tresc.html?encid=1730632&szukajEnc=racowie&enc_o pis=1&score=&found=&szukane=&ticaid=14a27

racowie, lekka najemna jazda złożona z Serbów, znana na Węgrzech od XIV w.; w Polsce w końcu XV-pocz. XVI w. służyli w obronie potocznej.

Gear at Grunwald

archiver.rootsweb.com/th/read/HERBARZ/2001-03/0983839431

"The hussar originated in Serbia towards the end of the 14th century.
There are references to hussars in Poland in treasury returns of 1500,
though they were probably in Polish service before this date.
These early formations were foreign mercenaries, first known as
Racowie from the term Rascia, 'Serbia', from the original centre of
the Serbian state, Ras. The term 'hussar' probably originates not -
as has been widely published - from any connections with the Hungarian
husz meaning 'twenty', but from gusar, a Slavonic word meaning
'bandit'.

After the clash with Turks on Kosovo Field in year 1389, where both leaders- Serbian (Prince Lazar) and Turkish (Sultan Murad I) were killed, Serbs everywhere sought an opportunity to revenges on Turks. Jan Dlugos recorded under year 1463, that in battle over Sava (there was `Cohors Raczanorum` - Serbian regiment of light calvalry), after deaths of king Matijas Korvin Serbians were invited to help against Teutons, too. So, they responded and succeeded to Poland to fight. Also, Serbs continued to fight with advancing Turks after "gusarsku/usarsku tactics" and beat them everywhere in hope that they could later push them out of Serbian lands. Anyway, Poles also accepted to fight after "Husarsku".

First units of Hussars were light horse calvary. The main transformation of this unit took place when `szlachta` elected new king in form of Stevan Batory- prince of Transylvania who reorganized this unit to Winged Hussar. Spread wings (which was not popular at the time), added new armaments and heavy armour.

More pics of Polish Winged Cavalry and about Polish army dress thru ages

Hussar

Hussar armor from the second half of the seventeenth century, made of polished iron
with copper ornamentation. "Wings" are attached to the back side, the laths of the
wings are made of wood


In 1776 the Sejm liquidates this unit and in return creates national cavalry (lancers)

Uhlans typically wore a double-breasted jacket (kurta) with a coloured panel (plastron) at the front, a coloured sash, and a square-topped Polish lancer cap (czapka). Their lances usually had small swallow-tailed flags (known as the lance pennon) just below the spearhead.

Even today there is not many changes in Polish uniform of army (I don`t know for possible latest reforms from NATO time)...

Marshall Pilsudski in 1920

Petelicki in 1990
Piorun - | 658  
29 Nov 2007 /  #57
Historia Polski History of Poland


Ozi Dan 26 | 569  
29 Nov 2007 /  #58
Even today there is not many changes in Polish uniform of army (I don`t know for possible latest reforms from NATO time)...

I like the Polish uniforms. I have many pictures of my ancestors in uniform. If anyone has an ancestor in uniform, can they please post it so we can all have a look.

Does anyone know of the meaning/significance of the squiggly line on the collar ends of the uniform. I seem to recall it meant something. Thanks - I really look forward to some more pictures.

I'd like to know how I can attach my pictures if someone could tell me please.

Dan
Crow 139 | 8,621  
30 Nov 2007 /  #59
Good posts Crow.

if that was good, for next post I want vodka. No, ... wait, I want and Vodka and Slivovica (Polish versions, acceptable) and plus you can surprsie me with that polish pieroge or something.

I`ll chose place and time, somwhere in Warsawa ;)
Grzegorz_ 51 | 6,163  
1 Dec 2007 /  #60
if that was good, for next post I want vodka.

I will think about It :)

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