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Ancient Polish History thread

Crow 148 | 9,393  
4 Apr 2008 /  #91
see this...


The Slavs

Consequently if we were to follow strictly the written historical authorities, of which a number are very trustworthy,we would be obliged to support the theory that the original home of the Slavs is in the countries along the Danube and on the Adriatic coast.

links for articles by Sergei V. Rjabchikov...






by Sergei V. Rjabchikov

Let us consider a part of the wall-painting of a Bosporan crypt (the ancient town Panticapeum; Kerch, the Ukraine) (Rostovtzeff 1913: table XCVII; 1914: 412-6), see figure 1.

It is a pattern of the Sarmatian culture. The drawing of an eagle is surrounded by two pairs of symbols: a fragment of a net included in a rectangle and a cross with four dots included in a circle. I believe that the eagle is a symbol of the god-thunderer(Rjabchikov 2002: 33, 155). A net is the symbol of the water, and the cross, the number four and the round are solar symbols (Rjabchikov 2002: 6ff). So here the ideas "water; rain" and "fire; the sun; lightning" are presented.

Let us examine an ornament on a Scythian scoop from the Grigorovskoe ancient settlement (the Ukraine) (Galanina, Domansky and Smirnova 1981: 32-3, photo [12a]). Here I distinguish a wavy sign ('water') surrounded by representations of fragments of a net. Apparently, all the symbols are relevant to the water.

to revive a little this thread, suitable picture... :)

tsmith - | 1  
11 Apr 2008 /  #92
Years ago I received a prayer card w/ a small bag attached that has soil in it. On the card it reads: Ziemia Meczenska Pratulina. I believe it is the soil where a religiuos battle was fought and many Polish people died. However, that is all that I can rememer. The front of the card shows people holding up a cross. It looks to be from centuries ago. Any information would be most appreciated. Thanks!
Bylany1 - | 2  
13 Apr 2008 /  #93
Dear Sir,

I suspect that by the time we reach a time we can speak of Slavs in the strict sense (maybe in the Bronze Age), the Slavs actually inhabit the Lusatian Culture zone in broad terms, actually a bit north of Danubia, corresponding to E. Germany, Poland and the northern rim of Bohemia, Moravia, and Slovakia.

BMW Albert
Crow 148 | 9,393  
13 Apr 2008 /  #94

There is one story for you - Polish and Slavic ladies and gentlemen (and other members and guests of, based on old and true chronicles. Ancient Slavic culture was very advanced and greatly affected traditions and achievements of complete Western world. One of those achievements, based on old Slavic heritage is Order of the Dragon- mighty protector of Christianity, Slavs and Europeans. This Earth didn't seen Sacred Order which was glorious as this one. There wasn't Sacred Order with members famous and controversial as members of this Order. All were willing to die for honor and given word. Many of them die. Our Lord Jesus Christ and St. Vitus were witnesses. Order effectively existed about 300 years, and was revived later. Extracted from ancient Sarmatian (Proto Slavic/Slavic) heritage, in middle age re-born as Serbian, Order evolved into Slavic Order after call for brotherly support, which was sent from Serbian nobility because of Ottoman threat. Soon after, Order becomes European. Order was always open for Orthodox, Catholics and Protestants. It seams that divisions inside of Christian world didn't affect this Order.

It is said that famous Polish King Jan Sobieski was one of the most devoted members of this Order. Great King did whatever he could to support Serbians and all Balkan Slavs who faced with Turkish invasion. May eternal soul of His Majesty Jan Sobieski, rest in peace.








Serbian Nobleman, true Sarmatian- Milos Obilic - the original founder of the Dragon Order

The famous Polish King, Jan Sobieski, the architect behind the great Turkish defeat at the gates of Vienna, also served as Grand Master between 1657 and 1696. As Hungary and Transylvania crumbled beneath the weight of the Turkish onslaught, many members of the Dragon Order fell in battle and the orientation of the surviving knights drifted further eastward. With the death of Jan Sobieski, leadership passed to Prince Dmitri Cantemir, the Despot of Moldavia, who was valiantly engaged in a conflict to stave off the Turks. Dmitiri rallied the last of the loyal Dragon knights but was ultimately defeated by the Turks and ousted from his principality. The circle of the Order had dwindled significantly and, once Cantemir died without issue, the title of Grand Master passed to Dmitri's suzerain, Peter the Great of Russia.



one more fragment from text:

The original Order, called the Sacred Order of the Dragon of Saint George, was created by Milos Obilic, the first Serbian to be dubbed a knight in the feudal tradition. Obilic created his order with twelve other knights and the society had a single purpose at its center: The assassination of the Ottoman Sultan, Murad I. Milos Obilic achieved the aim of his organization during the disastrous battle of Kosovo Polje (June 15th, 1389), when he was able to force himself into Murad's tent and stab the Sultan to death.

When Christianity clashed with Islam - Kosovo Battle, Jun 28, 1389, St. Vitus day (Sv. Vid/Vidovdan- on Serbian)

From the bottom of the hell, via Anatolia, Evil Serpent of Ottoman hordes come to swallow Serbian Empire and whole Europe then. As, respond - Dragon from the oldest Slavic traditions was needed once again. Summoned by Serbian Nobleman Voivode of Knights Miloš Obilić - dragon came. Price was life.

to be continued...
isthatu2 4 | 2,703  
13 Apr 2008 /  #95
Crow,hand on heart,I thank you for your fascinating contributions in this thread...see,we really are all brothers/brates.:) Being that it seems Poles are part slav part viking part celt and Brits are part celt part viking...lets all have manly bear hugs and make up? Right,who can we all gang up against?;)
Crow 148 | 9,393  
13 Apr 2008 /  #96
there is two options for you then

1. you should spiritualy return to Mother Slavia


2. learn to respect choice of those who stayed Slavs

whatever your path can be, i can found strenght to tolerate you

Franek 8 | 271  
13 Apr 2008 /  #97
How about this.

The Polish White Eagle
A thousand years ago, or maybe even more, there lived three brothers, Lech, Czech, and Rus. For many years they had been content in their villages, but the families grew larger and they needed more room to live.
The brothers decided to travel in different directions to search for new homes. Lech, Czech, and Rus traveled with their troops for many days. They rode their horses over mountains and rivers, through forests and wild country. There were no people to be found anywhere, not a town or tiny village. On the crest of a mountain top, they separated...

And, now you know how Poland began . .
southern 75 | 7,096  
13 Apr 2008 /  #98
From the bottom of the hell, via Anatolia, Evil Serpent of Ottoman hordes come to swallow Serbian Empire and whole Europe then. As, respond - Dragon from the oldest Slavic traditions was needed once again.

Dragon against serpent.Slavic history is fascinating.
I have noticed that all kings whether in Poland,Czech or Ukraine have the ending -slav in their first names.Boleslaw,Swiatoslaw,etc.It cannot be a coincidence.
Crow 148 | 9,393  
13 Apr 2008 /  #99
How about this.


thank you Franek.

nice story before good night :)
isthatu2 4 | 2,703  
13 Apr 2008 /  #100
learn to respect choice of those who stayed Slavs

Ok,if you learn to respect paths of those who chose not to :)
Crow 148 | 9,393  
13 Apr 2008 /  #101
read what i said. I told you

He and his people built many houses and it became the center of his territory. They called themselves Polonians, which means "People of the Field".

nice example why we need discussion

to become "People of the Field", people need first to live as nomadic ethnic/tribal formation depending on the food which can be found (collected) in nature. Fact that Poles are "People of the Field", lead to conclusion that Poles behind themselves has long and continual evolution of their way of life. Ultimate conclusion must be that Poles (Slavs in general) are on their own for much longer period then many can imagine or could be ready to admit...

I have noticed that all kings whether in Poland,Czech or Ukraine have the ending -slav in their first names.Boleslaw,Swiatoslaw,etc.It cannot be a coincidence.

Scientific fact is that Polish national name reffering on people who depended on agriculture. In general, names/designations of Slavic nations/people has deeper meaning and sense then, designation [of how to say]- names of younger ethoses. Same is with personal Slavic names, designations for places, rivers and mountains.

Slavic history is fascinating.

more you can imagine, more you can imagine


Reconstruction drawing by Gerry Embleton, showing a Sarmatian in Roman service, based on the Chester stele as well as the 'dog' draco from Trajans Column.

more on Dragon in Sarmatian simbolism...

Dragon against serpent

in it`s essence it should be understand as constant metaphisical battle between good and evil. Dragon (good) Vs. Serpent (evil)
isthatu2 4 | 2,703  
15 Apr 2008 /  #102
Reconstruction drawing by Gerry Embleton, showing a Sarmatian in Roman service, based on the Chester stele as well as the 'dog' draco from Trajans Column.

But wait,I thought it was only us false westers that were Romen lackey's? :)
Keep up the posts crow,spot on.
Crow 148 | 9,393  
17 Apr 2008 /  #103
Source for previous pictures...

The Draco, the Late Roman military standard

here you can read more in case with Sarmatian influence on Romans (and not only them)

just few quotations:

It may have been used primarily to determine the wind-direction for the horse archers. Arrian described it as a long sleeve, 'made by sewing pieces of dyed material together'. This sleeve/tube hung limp when the rider was at rest, but on the move it flew like a serpent and whistled in the wind. The hollow head, in the form of a toothed dragon, was formed from metal and the wind passing through it would extend the cloth tube tail attached to the neck of the head.

The Draco was adopted first into the Roman cavalry during the 2nd century AD, possibly with the introduction of Sarmatian cavalry into the Roman army.

Note how old historians always (usualy in articles that i sow) confuse Scythians with Sarmatians or simple- in many chronicles, consider them as kin ethoses. In general, Scythians were branch of Sarmatians (Slavs) but seams almost exclusively nomadic, while those Slavic tribes which were dirrectly designated as Sarmatians were bearers of knowlage of agriculture (not only that). Today`s Slavic nations (and many of those who originates from Slavs but aren`t Slavs anymore) are mixture of those nomadic and tribes orriented on agriculture. Also, Sarmatians introduced knowlage of heavy cavalery to Romans (what would later ultimately evolved in Serbian Racowie and Polish winged cavalery, husars, etc.) and Scythians knowlage of horse archery (possibly, later evolved into Cossacks).

Arrian, who was writing c. 137 AD, described it as a Scythian (he most probably meant Sarmatian) invention which was adopted by Roman cavalry...

We already mentioned here (see page 3), Sarmatian (Slavic) origin of King Arthur Pendragon...

King Arthur in combat, brandishing a draco. From L'Histoire de Merlin by Robert de Boron (14th C.).
isthatu2 4 | 2,703  
17 Apr 2008 /  #104
Fantastic stuff crow,thanks.
So the Draco came from the auxiliary cavalry,cool,and our "Once and future King " also went into battle with one? Even better. Love those Arthurian legends.
expatriot 1 | 23  
18 Apr 2008 /  #105
Excellent thread !! i always wanted to know about ancient polish history !

Im trying to discover my polish roots. I dont know that half :))
Crow 148 | 9,393  
18 Apr 2008 /  #106
here we see that use of Dragon battle standards had even practical meaning.

I have one digression on this, having in mind great ancient knowledge presented from our Slavic ancestors.

Remind yourself on Serbian Racowie and Polish Winged cavalry, for a moment [see this]...

Commonwealth Hussar, wings visible. Painting by Aleksander Orłowski


The hussars were generally the elite of the Polish armey and their men had excellent fighting and equestrian skills. They were generally feared by the Russians, Swedes, Turks, and Tartars. Since the seventeen century was a time of war, the Poles had to fight to save their land, their natural resources, and trade routes. Sweden, Muscovy, Turkey, the Tartars, and the Cossacks all were hell-bent on destroying Poland.

What you people say on this example of martial skill and ancient knowledge in general? That is just one of many proofs that Slavic culture/existance has long continuity in time and space. Can you imagine those conditions and times when such a knowladge was extracted (to use wings/feathers as intimidation or to use Dragon battle standard to be aware of wind durrection!!!). Increadible how ancient simbolism had even practical side.

Same as Dragon tradition, Racowie (Husar/Gusar) martial concept was spread accross the Europe (not only Europe)...

Light hussars

A type of irregular light horsemen, already well established by the 15th century. The word hussar derives from the Hungarian huszár. Originally, it derives from the Serbian word `gusar` (Cyrillic: гусар) meaning bandit, pirate. Initially they fought in small bands indeed, but were reorganised into a strong, highly-trained and motivated formation during the reign of King Matthias I Corvinus of Hungary. Under his command the units took part in the war against the Ottoman Empire in 1485 and proved successful against the Turkish Spahis as well as Bohemians and Poles. After the king's death in 1490 many hussars fled to other Central and Western European countries and became the core of similar light cavalry formations created there.

If one start to examine traces of Slavic contribution to global heritage of whites and whole mankind, he must admit that Slavs are amazing. Slavic history was too often written by hostile foreigners. Today, we live in time when Slavic history faces its revolution. I wish to all of us that we enjoy and inform ouselves because, only informed persons are capable to endure chalanges of life. Let our past serve to future of our children.
MareGaea 29 | 2,752  
18 Apr 2008 /  #107
Remind yourself on Serbian Racowie and Polish Winged cavalry, for a moment

I knew it! Everything is traceable back to Serbia :) Polish winged huzzars...At what phase in evolution did they lose their wings?

isthatu2 4 | 2,703  
18 Apr 2008 /  #108
Same as Dragon tradition, Racowie (Husar/Gusar) martial concept was spread accross the Europe

Your right there crow,Britains "modern"cavalry (ie,when mounted cavalry was still being used) owes almost all its uniform and many of its traditions in one way or another to those ancient Slavic horsemen. When our forces met the Polish and "Polish" cavalry of Napoleon in battle they met their inspiration. Soon after our Lancers became the main stay of the cavalry and even adopted the four pointed flat topped helmet. The Red and White pennent is also ,to this day,to be seen near the tips of the Lances carried byt the cavalry guarding the Queen.
Crow 148 | 9,393  
10 May 2008 /  #109
the ancient history of Poland would basically go into ancient slavic history and mythology....

Not necessarily if we take `pro et contra` political reasons for discussion about ancient past of Poland. But, if we insist to operates with scientific and historic facts, that's how it is.

And, again, we are aware of politics. Why, in this particular case?

It's because, scientific facts and historic truth, almost same as falsified history, could be objects of manipulations in order to satisfy some political goal, interests of some political elite, etc, etc. [BDW, it also can be good fun]

So, we should avoid all eventual traps in our journey through Polish and Slavic past in general. We must be aware that Slavic history was too often written by those who conquered Slavs and, seams that we also must be aware of political consequences of truth. Here, transparency and public discussion could help (God bless internet!).

I vote for truth in case with Slavic (Polish) past so that our young generation's could learn and remember. Without knowledge about our own past, we can't avoid same mistakes. Not to mention, that serious examination of Slavic past can open real new frontiers in case with our knowledge of universal human past. Our past, our present, our future, all is our contribution to our kind and then to complete mankind. All counts

I wonder, if you ever heard for Sarmizegetuza?

Do we have time to remind ourselves of Sarmizegetuza for a moment, in this modern and so fast era?

Sarmizegetuza should be remembered from all Sarmatians, so i would speak about that place here, in this thread dedicated to ancient times.

It was place in today`s Romania. But, before Romania those lands were part of Sarmatia, more concrete, there was Dacia and Dacians, children of Slavia. Sarmizegetuza was capital of Dacia.

This is story about time, when population of Dacia was slain almost entirely to ground zero and replaced with new settlers with different ethnic and even different racial characteristics. That`s how branch of Sarmatians was exterminated, some of them managed to escape and some were romanized.

Let fallen Sarmatians rest in peace. Their resistance should be remembered and mentioned...

Roman soldiers building a bridge and a mountain road in Dacia, from Trajan's Column. Note the heads on pikes at the right.

Battle of Adamclisi

Battle of Adamclisi was a major battle , in 92 AD when a coalition of Dacian and Rhoxolani sarmatian completely slaughtered the Legio XXI Rapax[1]

Dacian king benefited from this, and made out a plan along with the neighboring allied tribes of the Roxolans and Bastarnae, to attack south of the Danube, in the Roman province of Moesia, in an attempt to force the Romans to leave their positions in the mountains near Sarmizegetusa.

First Battle of Tapae

Two battles took place at Tapae under the Roman Emperor Domitian in order to protect the Roman province of Moesia, nearly two decades before the regional conquest during the Dacian wars in Trajan's reign, one in 87 AD and one in 88 AD.

Second Battle of Tapae

The Roman army crossed the Danube at Viminacium, slowly making its way into Dacia. Just like in 87/88, the battle took place at Tapae. The Dacians resisted the Roman offensive, but as a storm broke out, the Dacians believing it is a sign from the Gods, decided to withdraw.

Battle of Sarmisegetusa

The Battle of Sarmisegetusa (also spelled Sarmizegethusa) was a siege of Sarmizegetusa, the capital of Dacia, fought in 106 between the army of the Roman Emperor Trajan, and the Dacians led by King Decebalus.

The Roman forces approached Sarmizegetuza in three main columns. The first column crossed the bridge built by Apollodorus of Damascus, and then followed the valleys of rivers Cerna and Timiş up to Tibiscum. They then turned on the valley of the river Bistra, through the Tara Hategului depression.

NOTE: names of rivers

Dacian treasure which, according to Jerome Carcopino (p.73), consisted of 165,000 kilograms of pure gold and 331,000 kilograms of silver in the bed of the Sergetia River (Cassius Dio 68.14).

Losses sustained in this war by the Dacians were tremendous, but the Roman army also took significant casualties in the conquest of Dacia. The first Dacian rebellion against Roman rule would coincide with the death of Trajan, in 117, showing impact the Emperor had on the Dacians after the war. Even in modern Romanian folklore (Romanians being the descendants of Romanized Dacians),...

most glorious episode from Polish past by my choice

Thanks Poles for this victory!


Jan Matejko. The Battle of Grunwald. 1878

The battle was furious. The incessant clash of swords was like the rolling of thunder across a field. Horses whinnied and went down, throwing their masters under the hooves of other horses, and a wild confused and terrible hand-to-hand battle raged inconclusively for nearly half an hour.


Many things have happened over the centuries - battles and meetings - but no one can remember such a terrible crushing defeat. It fell under the eyes of the Great King Jagiello, not only the Teutonic Order but the whole of Germany, whose greatest knights were in the front line of the Teutonic Order, which was more and more entering to the Slavic land...

on Polish:

Wiele bywalo w owych czasach na swiecie bitew i spotkan, ale nikt z zywych ludzi nie pamieta tak straszliwego pogromu. Padl pod stopami wielkego Krola nie tylko Zakon krzyzacki; ale i cale Niemcy, ktore najswietniejszym rycerstwem wspomagaly ona "przednia straz" teutonska, wzerajaca sie coraz glebiej w cialo slowianskie...

more about Zawisza Czarny, who taken part in Battle of Grunwald (read in text/link above)...

Zawisza Czarny

born in Poland, dedicated whole life to freedom of Slavdom, gave his honorable life in Serbia, for liberation of Racowie


Zawisza Czarny in a detail of Jan Matejko's Battle of Grunwald

Zawisza Czarny z Garbowa (Zawisza the Black of Garbów, also known as The Black Knight; c. 1379 in Stary Garbów, Poland - 1428 in Golubac, Serbia), Sulima Coat of Arms, was a famous Polish mediæval knight and diplomat. 1428 during the Battle of Golubac on the Danube (Serbia) he was captured by the Turks and probably murdered.

Zawisza became for many Poles one of the most popular folks heroes thank to his exceptional bravery and proverbial reliability and loyalty. Famous is the Polish saying: "Polegaj jak na Zawiszy" (Rely on him like on Zawisza). This motto also became part of the Polish Scouts oath.

memorial table and water pool dedicated to Zawisza Czarny in Serbia, banks of Danube River, old medieval fortress, where once Racowie were recruited to be sent to serve Poland

For all the Poles, a monument to Zawisza Czarny

text on the table says (translation from Serbian):

``In Golubac, his life was taken by the Turks in 1428, the famous Polish knight, the symbol of the courage and honor, Zawisza the Black. Glory to the hero!``

I thought this could be interesting for Poles here. Wanted to show you this later, in step by step elaboration but, considering that many of my posts here are deleted i giving this now as my last post in this thread...


Ploski R, Wozniak M, Pawlowski R, Monies DM, Branicki W, Kupiec T, Kloosterman A, Dobosz T, Bosch E, Nowak M, Lessig R, Jobling MA, Roewer L, Kayser M.

Human Molecular Genetics Lab, Department of Forensic Medicine, Warsaw Medical Academy, Poland

Hum Genet. 2002 Jun;110(6):592-600. Epub 2002 May 2]

The relative homogeneity and lack of outside or non-European influence in Poland has been confirmed by genetic research

SlavicWarrior - | 6  
6 Jun 2008 /  #110
Russians live in Russia, while Ukrainians live in Ukraine. While they share predominantly common ancestry, they use different languages, although the Russian language admittedly does sound like a dialect of the Ukrainian language ;-)

There is actually more similarity between Ukrainian and Polish than there is between Ukrainian and Russian. In addition to that Poland lost a lot of peasants to the Ukranians in the middle ages that were mistreated by the Polish nobility. The western part of the Ukraine is a Polish/Ukrainian mix of people and linguistics.
Crow 148 | 9,393  
30 Aug 2008 /  #111

In the muster rolls of the armies of Poland and Lithuania, the terms 'Racowie' (Serbian) and 'hussar' or 'gussar' appear in the mid 1400's26. When you think of the grand Polish husaria, in their expensive and flashy winged armor, it is easy to forget what the root word really meant - robber! It's also interesting to note that 'robber' implies a ferocious fighter that would strike fast and hard.

The First Polish Hussars

The first hussars of the Commonwealth were light cavalry in a support role to the 'traditional' heavily armored knights, and were formed just before 1500. You can see that documented in the painting of the battle of Orsza in 151427. They served not only the Commonwealth, but also show up in woodcuts describing their service to the Holy Roman Empire of Maximilian I (figure 8). Looking at these images, you can see how the Jagiellon Kings had drawn upon the light, hard hitting Turkish Spahi and Deli as well as the Hungarian and Serbian hussar in the creation of their own cavalry (in fact, some Serbs did serve the Commonwealth).

Arms & Armor of the Commonwealth
Babinich 1 | 455  
30 Aug 2008 /  #112
more about Zawisza Czarny, who taken part in Battle of Grunwald (read in text/link above)...

Excellent post Crow... I find your contributions most interesting..
McCoy 27 | 1,269  
30 Aug 2008 /  #113

you're doing a great job. neka živi velika Srbija!

Great but forgotten - Lisowczycy - the light cavalry :

Lisowczycy (also known as Straceńcy ('lost men' or 'forlorn hope') or chorągiew elearska (company of elears) - the name of an early 17th century irregular unit of light cavalry, mostly form Grand Duchy of Lithuania, as their leader Aleksander Józef Lisowski was. The Lisowczycy took part in many battles across Europe and the historical accounts of the period characterized them as extremely agile, warlike, and bloodthirsty

The Lisowczycy took part in many conflicts, including the Dymitriads (where their actions help explain the text of the infamous placard in Zagorsk: three plagues: typhus, Tatars, and Poles)


Rembrandt - "The Polish Rider"

Rider from Poland

Józef Brandt -"Lisowczycy - A bow shooting"
Crow 148 | 9,393  
31 Aug 2008 /  #114
neka živi velika Srbija!

it would mean- Long live Sarmatia!

Polskie pamiątki husarskie. Szable polsko-węgierskie
01 październik, 2007

Najprawdopodobniej pierwszymi, uzbrojonymi w lekkie, krzywe żelazo, oddziałami byli tzw. Racowie, czyli południowi Słowianie (Serbowie) w służbie węgierskiej. Tworzyli oni oddziały lekkiej jazdy, uznane przez historyków wojska za pierwowzór husarii. Prawdopodobnie też z ich języka pochodzi słowo szabla (serb.: sablja). Szybko zaczęto wytwarzać tę broń na miejscu. Produkcja krajowa nie wystarczała jednak na pokrycie węgierskich potrzeb, więc zamawiano także głownie oraz całe szable za granicą, głównie w Styrii, w miastach Weitz i Graz.

Patrycja19 63 | 2,699  
21 Sep 2008 /  #115
Could anyone start a History Thread

I brought this back to life.. its been missed..and we never know when
someone might come along and find this interesting enough to add to their
homework :)
Poznan 5 | 46  
24 Oct 2008 /  #116

Polans were from Poznań and Gniezno. We gave name for our nation.

Polans made union with vistulians (Cracow) and later Pomeranians and Silesians joined us. This is how Polish nation has been formed. Polans were the strongest Polish tribe
30 Oct 2008 /  #117

"The Polans (also known as Polanes, Polanians or Polians; Polish: Polanie) were a West Slavic tribe inhabiting the Warta river basin.

Later they managed to subdue most of the Slavic tribes between the Odra (Oder) and Western Bug rivers and between the Carpathians and the Baltic Sea by the 10th century, they also managed to integrate the lands of Masovia, Kuyavia and Great Poland.

Newest archeological findings reveal four major strongholds or gords (Polish gród) in the early Polans' state:

Giecz - the place from where the Piasts gained control over other groups of Polans
Poznań - the largest and probably the main stronghold in the state
Gniezno - probably the religious centre of the state, although archeological findings do not prove this
Ostrów Lednicki - smaller stronghold halfway between Poznań and Gniezno

The tribal union led by the Piast dynasty developed into the state of Poland, whose name derives from that of the Polans. For more information see Prehistory of Poland and History of Poland (966-1385).
Prince 15 | 590  
15 Nov 2008 /  #118
I'll add my favourite 2 battles.


September 27, 1605, the Polish-Lithuanian and Swedish forces met near the small town of Kircholm (now Salaspils in Latvia, some 18 km. South East of Riga). The forces of Charles IX of Sweden were numerically superior and were composed of 11,000 infantry (8500 pikeman, 2500 musketeer), 2,500 cavalry and 11 cannons. The Swedish army included a few thousand German and Dutch mercenaries and even a few hundred Scots.

Jan Karol Chodkiewicz was composed of roughly 1,300 infantry (1040 pikeman and 260 musketeer), 2,600 cavalry and only 5 cannons.

The fighting lasted barely 20 to 30 minutes, yet the Swedish defeat was utter and complete. The army of Charles IX had lost at least half, perhaps as much as two-thirds, its original strength. The Polish-Lithuanian losses numbered only about 100 dead and 200 wounded

Polish forces numbering about 6,800 men (of which about 80 percent (5556[2]) were the famous 'winged' hussars) under Hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski defeated a numerically superior force of about 35,000 - 40,000 Russians under Dmitry Shuisky, Andrew Golicyn and Danilo Mezecki, including about 5,000 - 10,000 mercenary units temporarily allied to Russia, under the command of Jacob De la Gardie, mostly Finnish and Swedish, with some regiments composed of French, German and British. Including the forces that did not take part in combat (remained in camp, reserve or was delayed), the numbers were 12,300 Poles against 48,000 Russians. Poles were supported by 2 cannons, and Russians by 11.

Casualties and losses
Poles 400 Russians and Swedes 5,000

Crow 148 | 9,393  
16 Nov 2008 /  #119
who knows what we can found searching for deepest Polish roots...

What is with Polish history in time before great tribe of Polans made union with other tribes and before Polish nation was formed as unique branch of Slavic world?

Polish Sarmatism is well known fact of Polish history... Then, we know that Dacians were Sarmatians, same as Tracinas, even Celts and many others, that Scythians were branch of Sarmatians... we know for expansion of Danubian culture in continuity since paleolithic- from Balkan to Baltic, from Lusatia to the Russian stepes... it is fact that Slavic languages evolved in continuity since time immemorial... so, spot this...

Russians confirm Alexander was Macedonian
Grzegorz_ 51 | 6,161  
16 Nov 2008 /  #120
Thanks for bringing up this thread. I will try to contribute some mre later...

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