this would be a non eu country on the other side of the pond.
Hmm. I'm not sure without delving into details, but usually it depends if Poland has signed a social security agreement with the other country or not. However, the exact details depend on what has been agreed. These things are usually geared towards long term payments - it wouldn't surprise me if there was clauses to stop people from receiving benefits on a short term basis.
ZUS themselves would be the best people to ask really - however, the dual citizen thing is a red herring because it's unrecognised under Polish law.