Similar information you have here: forummigracyjne.org/common/files_download.php?fid=151
From my knowledge 3 years is Possible, provided you're married to Polish citizen.
I needed 2 months to complete the span of 5 years to get Permanent resident card.
Read the paper in my link, because 5 years is not the only requirement. You must also have a job when applying:
The permit (Zezwolenie na pobyt rezydenta długoterminowego WE) is granted to a foreigner, who, immediately prior to filing of the application, has been staying in Poland for at least 5 years continuously and legally and who has:
- a stable and regular source of income sufficient to cover the costs of maintenance for him-/herself and family members, who are dependant upon him/ her;
- health insurance as defined in the legal provisions on general health insurance or confirmation of coverage by the insurer of costs of treatment within the territory of Poland..
So you have no choice, but become employed.