Seems to me a lot of European countries keep the 5-year rule. Meaning living in the said country for over 5 years. Obviously if you are a EU citizen, you don't need any Polish passport at all.
There is no need to have a permanent residency permit; however, if applying on the basis of being married to a Polish citizen, one must have been living in Poland for at least two years on a temporary residency permit (or a permanent residency permit). From memory it's in Article 30, section one of the Polish Citizenship Act of 2009.
OK, if this is the case...For a non-EU person to get permission to live in Poland, even if married to a Polish citizen...It is not that obvious.
For example, we have friends...Their daughter is Polish, married to a Mexican. They married in Mexico six years ago, have lived there all the time. he would not easily get permission to live here - at least so I think.