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Polish Prefixation

18 May 2009 /  #1
I'm a uni student currently studying Semantics and I'm looking at Polish prefixes and the changes they can cause to words. From research so far three things can occur to a Polish simplex once it gains a prefix:

1. Either none to very little change occurs other then the verb becomes
perfective and creates an aspectual pair (pisać and napisać).

2. Or the meaning of the word is changed, but not enough for the lexical
meaning to change (pracowa- and prezepreacowa-).

3. The lexical meaning of the prefixed simplex completely changes (mówi- and
zamówi-) I've also notice a few others in another of the forums
napierdolić, rozpierdolić, spierdolić.

What I'm after, which is where I'm hoping any speaker of Polish can help me, is in finding more examples of the third state of prefixation when there is a change in meaning.

Thank you :)
18 May 2009 /  #2
If German is any help for comparison, many Polish prefixes which often 'perfectivize' a verb, i.e. make it a one-time vs. a repeated action, or 'imperfective', track with certain German forms, though of course, there is no relation.

Perhaps the above would only confuse you, so I'll stop here. Below, more to your query:

'NA' = fulfilling a completion, e.g. 'pisać'/'napisać',(to write) 'pić'/'napić' (to drink) etc..
'ROZ = take an action to its extreme e.g. 'kazac'/rozkazać, 'wiedźić'/'rozwiedźić' etc...
'S' = indicate one given time e.g. 'podobać się'/'spodobać się' (to find pleasing, to like)etc
18 May 2009 /  #3
Trzymać (to hold) vs. zatrzymać [samochód] (to stop [a car])
[but also "to keep" - keep it to yourself; zatrzymaj to dla siebie].

Razić - obrazić - wyrazić - zarazić - przerazić
(each has a completely different meaning).

Napierdolić - rozpierdolić - spierdolić
is absolutely correct as an example but may cause outrage (or laughter) if presented publicly to (a) Polish speaking person(s).
18 May 2009 /  #4
Razić - obrazić - wyrazić - zarazić - przerazić

zrazić - porazić - wrazić - narazić


but all have one in common - they sound like a yugo last names
18 May 2009 /  #5
Vasa Tajcić and all that company ?
18 May 2009 /  #6
Famous Razić family
14 Mar 2010 /  #7
Please help, I have some prefiks problem! They are very confusing...

Please tell me which prefiks we use in these sentences...

1) ....bierz ziemniaki na obiad! (po? I don't know...)
2) .....brałem pieniądze od mojego kolegi. (absolutely no idea...)
3) Ten kelner ....brał mnie już kilka razy. Zawsze dopisywał do rachunku. (don't even understand the sentence)

Thank anyone very much in advance!
14 Mar 2010 /  #8
1) obierz - peel
2) odebrałem - take away
3) nabrał - take in

Excerpts from 'Linguistics across historical and geographical boundaries'

The function of prefixation in the assignment of aspect to the Polish verb

There are valuable contributions to the description of the
Polish aspectual system [...] One such problem which still needs
further discussion and proper explanation is the problem of the
relation between a simple morphological form of the verb and its
prefixed formations. In a great number of treatments an opinion
prevails that prefixation of morphologically simple verbs, which are
imperfective, results in the formation of the perfective counterparts
of these verbs. Such observations can be found in almost every
Polish grammar handbook. This opinion has been based
on the analysis of certain verbs such as:

pisać - napisać'write'
robić - zrobić'do, make'
czytać - przeczytać 'read' etc.

where the addition of a prefix to a morphologically simple stem indeed
results in the formation of the derived perfective construction.

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