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Imperative, prefix, reflexive verbs, imperfect form in Polish - 6 questions


Czarne Oczy 14 | 64  
14 Apr 2008 /  #1
1. In the dictionary, there is no imperative, future simp. form of "wiedzieć" (and some other verbs too). Would it be correct to say "będę wiedzieć"?

2. Is the difference between "iść" and "jechać" "to go" and "to go by__"?

3. Aside from the future simp. tense, is prefix "po-" added to [some] verbs when a command is being given? ex: posłuchaj.

4. The imperative, present form congegations of "zobaczyć."

5. Does Polish have reflexive verbs/what are some examples? Are reflexive pronouns needed?

6. Quote: "In imperfect form, an unfinished activity is indicated, and finished activity is signified by the perfect verb twin..." my question is why is "nauczyć" in its perfect form if it means "to teach to..." Does the prefix "na-" morph "uczyć" into past tense and therefore the action of teaching would have already been completed?

Dziękuje za pomoc:)
Shawn_H  
14 Apr 2008 /  #2
1. In the dictionary, there is no imperative, future simp. form of "wiedzieć" (and some other verbs too). Would it be correct to say "będę wiedzieć"?

Będę is like "I will know" could be: dowiesz sie - which is like "you will know for sure..."

"iść" and "jechać"

iść is walking, jechać is to drive (car, bike etc...)

3. Aside from the future simp. tense, is prefix "po-" added to [some] verbs when a command is being given? ex: posłuchaj.

Correct, but apparently you can also get away with słuchaj as well.

Someone more apt in the language will help with the rest, I am sure....
Krzysztof 2 | 973  
14 Apr 2008 /  #3
I'm not sure you're using the term "imperative" correctly in your questions. Do you really mean the imperative mode (used mostly for commands "do it, please", "don't smoke in this room!") or something else?

1. In the dictionary, there is no imperative, future simp. form of "wiedzieć" (and some other verbs too). Would it be correct to say "będę wiedzieć"?

Yes, "być + infinitive (of an imperfective verb)" = future tense
(for perfective verbs a form derivated from the verb's stem is used, without the auxiliary "być"), other possibility, still only for imperfective verbs, is "będę wiedział(-a)" (with the past tense form instead of the infinitive, but it's more complicated for foreigners, because you have to use the correct gender - masculine or feminine - in this construction, so the first option is easier)

2. Is the difference between "iść" and "jechać" "to go" and "to go by__"?

"to go" functions in Polish both as iść or jechać, the difference is that we use "iść" when the movement is on foot, "jechać" - by mechanical means. In fixed expressions (like "to go to school/work" "iść/chodzić" is used)

3. Aside from the future simp. tense, is prefix "po-" added to [some] verbs when a command is being given? ex: posłuchaj.

These are actually 2 different verbs (słuchać and posłuchać), I can't say why "posłuchaj" or "popatrz" are more often used for commands, maybe because they sound more polite?

4. The imperative, present form congegations of "zobaczyć."

I can't answer this, I don't understand the word "congegations" in your question.

5. Does Polish have reflexive verbs/what are some examples? Are reflexive pronouns needed?

Yes, we have reflexive verbs, but unlike French, Italian, Spanish, German, Scandinavian languages, there is only one reflexive pronoun needed for all instances, it's always "się"

myć - to wash
myć się - to wash oneself ("se laver", if you speak French)
so it's:
Myję się
Myjesz się
Myje się
Myjemy się
Myjecie się
Myją się
sometimes (like in other languages) the reflexive verb has significantly different meaning than the non-reflexive one, for example:
uczyć = to teach
uczyć się = to learn

The reflexive pronoun "się" appears also instead of the direct object when the subject and the direct object are the same. Structurally it seems like a reflexive verb, but semantically it's a little different.

6. Quote: "In imperfect form, an unfinished activity is indicated, and finished activity is signified by the perfect verb twin..." my question is why is "nauczyć" in its perfect form if it means "to teach to..." Does the prefix "na-" morph "uczyć" into past tense and therefore the action of teaching would have already been completed?

The problem with perfective/imperfective aspect lies in the fact that they don't described finished/unfinished activities (for this you simply use tenses, Past, Present or Future), but rather the complete/incomplete status of the activity, hence the more accurate reference in English are the Simple/Continouos forms of a verb.

Uczyłem się angielskiego przez 2 lata - I was studying English for 2 years (but I still don't speak it well, so the activity is incomplete, although it's finished, because I stopped learning after that 2 years period)

Uczę się angielskiego od 2 lat - I've studied English for 2 years (and am still doing it, action incomplete and unfinished)

Nauczyłem się angielskiego w 2 lata - I learnt English in 2 years (I speak it well, so the activity is complete)

Muszę nauczyć się angielskiego, zanim wyjadę do Nowej Zelandii - I have to learn English before I leave for New Zealand (I have to speak it well by the time of my deprature, so the activity will be complete, although it's refering to the future).

The imperfective/perfective aspects have been discussed here in several threads, recently, a few months ago and probably also earlier (before I joined the forums), so you could search for some older threads and maybe find some useful informations there.
OP Czarne Oczy 14 | 64  
14 Apr 2008 /  #4
I'm still a little confused with the Imperative mood and the imperative form, I'll fix that up though:), thanks a bunch.
Krzysztof 2 | 973  
14 Apr 2008 /  #5
Imperative mood

Maybe you meant indicative mode (tryb oznajmujący)?
- oznajmujący is simply a statement
I'm reading a fascinating book. - Czytam fascynującą (pasjonującą) książkę.
- pytający is a question
What are you doing? - Co robisz?
- rozkazujący is a command
Don't smoke, please. - Nie pal(cie), proszę. (nie pal if talking to one person, nie palcie - to more persons)
Don't feed the animals! - Nie karmić zwierząt!
(nie + infinitive can also be used as imperative mode)
OP Czarne Oczy 14 | 64  
14 Apr 2008 /  #6
Thats exactly what I want, sigh..so many confusing little phrases. It's not the Polish thats confusing me, its the English words describing Polish grammar...how sad..!
Kemaleon 3 | 122  
14 Apr 2008 /  #7
It's not the Polish thats confusing me, its the English words describing Polish grammar...how sad..!

I'm with ya there, i was doing fine until i hit all these explanations. Now i have to go back and study English again, which I am mostly learning on here... from Polish people!

Oh the irony...

Hey, Whats Polish for Irony? do you have irony in your Coooouuuuntry?
NieMota - | 30  
15 Apr 2008 /  #8
Hey, Whats Polish for Irony? do you have irony in your Coooouuuuntry?

Yes we have ;) We know history's irony(ironia dziejów/historii) as well as fate's irony(ironia losu)
OP Czarne Oczy 14 | 64  
15 Apr 2008 /  #9
I'm with ya there, i was doing fine until i hit all these explanations. Now i have to go back and study English again, which I am mostly learning on here... from Polish people!

I know so many immigrants that speak such better English than me:S, the way they teach other languages in schools outside of N. America is so much better then the way they teach it here..theres no emphasis on learning another language at all, 90% of the people can't even get by in French.
Michal - | 1,865  
15 Apr 2008 /  #10
n "iść" and "jechać" "to go" and "to go by__"?

No, iść is to go by foot and jechać is to go by a form of transport.
NieMota - | 30  
15 Apr 2008 /  #11
You are right, but basically only.
Do you know this: "iść po rozum do głowy" ?
How do you think: by foot or by an any form of transport ? ;)

We used to say also: "latać/polecieć" or "skoczyć/wyskoczyć" instead of iść.
Look at that:
"pójdę do sklepu" mean very often the same as "wstąpię do sklepu".
The last expression don't specific any form of transport.
Michal - | 1,865  
15 Apr 2008 /  #12
Ja idę pieszo do sklupu

ja jadę autobusem do sklepu

Ja chodzę co dziennie do szkoły

Jutro pojadę pociągiem do Warszawy.

Surely this is what the question was really all about.
z_darius 14 | 3,968  
15 Apr 2008 /  #13
No, iść is to go by foot

This is not a good definition.
What about these:

Idzie deszcz (The rain is coming. It has no feet)
Idą złe czasy (Bad times are coming. Times have no feet)
Jestem w lózku i za chwile ide spać (I'm in bed and in a moment I'll go to sleep. No need to use feet since the person is already in bed)

Ide na zakupy. Czy moge wziać twój samochód? (I'm going shopping. May I use your car?)

Please, advise ;)
NieMota - | 30  
15 Apr 2008 /  #14
Surely this is what the question was really all about.

Why you want to limit your knowledge ?

Basically the same what you said just now, Krzysztof said before.

2. Is the difference between "iść" and "jechać" "to go" and "to go by__"?"to go" functions in Polish both as iść or jechać, the difference is that we use "iść" when the movement is on foot, "jechać" - by mechanical means. In fixed expressions (like "to go to school/work" "iść/chodzić" is used)

IMO you shuld be aware that "iść" is not limited only to its basic meaning.
If you will to know that, you will not be surprised if when you will find "iść" and the context is ruling out "by foot".

Archives - 2005-2009 / Language / Imperative, prefix, reflexive verbs, imperfect form in Polish - 6 questionsArchived