I know people who have graduated from university and know nothing about the world or it's history and more tellingly, they don't care that they don't know :(
It's becoming a badge of honour to be uneducated. We saw it with the last election in the US - people were simply refusing to accept hard evidence in favour of whatever rubbish the media told them. I'd love to say that it's an issue only with the formally uneducated, but the rise of the anti-vax movement shows that even supposedly educated and sensible people are prone to believing nonsense online over scientific evidence.
Speaking about Poland specifically, it seems to me that one issue is that children simply aren't taught to enjoy literature. Much of it is dull (the new school programme is just awful, but the old one isn't fantastic) and exists to bore the life out of children. Memorisation of poems is normal, so how can children develop a love of reading if they're being forced to read for grades?
There's also a very disturbing obsession among the middle classes to regard 'creative' things as being much more important than the most basic skill of reading. I really fear for the next generation of children as a result, especially as children aren't even encouraged to simply take books and read for a while. I did some small research on this, and as part of it, I asked Polish teachers how often they took kids to the library to simply read books for an hour. The answer? "never". With role models like that - how can they ever be expected to enjoy reading for pleasure?
As much as I dislike Harry Potter as literature, at least it got kids reading.