Ah, Xenophon. Just about the only Greek historian it was a joy to read in the original.
He is easy to read because he was marshall and as such he wrote in simple language.But Thucydides is far more interesting though lot more difficult.I can understand Ksenophon without dictionary because most of the words he uses exist in new Greek.Thucydides and Herodotus the terror of greek examinees in national exams when they asked to translate one of their passages the failure rate was too high.
Yes,we use the same.Oi polloi means in new Greek also the many.
1.Either this or on this.(I tan i epi tas).This means either you do the job,succeed etc or you get fired,it is like dead end.It was said by the women of Sparta when their husbands went to war.They told them either you bring this(the shield) or you get back on this(the shield) that is do not think for a moment to surrender(they called this drop the shield when you dropped the shield you were considered that you stop fighting).
2.Tomorrow the important(es avrion ta spoudaia).This means leave it for tomorrow if you think it is too important it is used ironically.First said by the marshall of the spartan guard occupying Akropolis of Theba when sb asked to talk to him claiming to have important information.The Spartans had a symposium(like a party eating and drinking) at the moment and their leader told the messenger ''tomorrow you say the important news''.Spartans spoke in laconic style without many words so his answer was ''tomorrow the important.''It became classic because the news regarded the movement of 1000 armed Thebans under Pelopidas and Epameinondas who attacked the Spartans the same night during the symposium killed all of them and liberated Theba from spartan occupation.
3.Never say sb is happy before the end.(midena pro tou telous makarize).We use this in several occasions and meanings.It mainly means wait to see what happens because maybe things will change.We use it also ironically.First used by the King of Lydia Kroisos when the King of Persia Kyros had captured him and was ready to sacrifice him to the Gods.Kroisos then(the richest man of his age) screamed Solon,Solon and Kyros asked what was this.Kroisos told him that one wise man Solon from Athens had visited him while he was in his most glorious times having vast quantities of gold and told him ''never call sb happy before the end''.He had laughed then at Solon because he considered himself invulnerable but now he sees how right Solon was.
Then Kyros thought about it and decided to liberate Kroisos and let him live because he was afraid that maybe some day the same end would happen to him.
4.You go and come not in the war die.(ikseis afikseis ouk en to polemo thnikseis).We tell this when sb does not present one opinion but says two opposite things at the same time.For example when he has no idea or when he does not want to be accused of being mistaken.Told by Pythia in Delphi when kings,marshalls or soldiers asked for advice whether they would win or die in the war Pythia answered ''you come and go not in the war die'',so many thought it meant ''you come and go,not in the war die'' and went to war.When they actually died and their families accused Delphi of being wrong and cheating Delphi told them.Pythia said ''you come and go not,in the war die'' so she warned you about the outcome.