Can a foreigner bring legal proceedings against a Polish company in a second European nation for goods or services purchased in Poland.
Generally speaking, no. If the foreigner is in Poland and purchased the product in Poland, then the Polish legal system must be used. The concept of legal jurisdiction would apply here - what European court is going to get involved in something like this, especially when they have no idea about Polish law?
Of course, once the Polish law route has been exhausted, then you can proceed to the European level court system.
Under EU directives there are laws to protect the consumer. In some EU companies consumer rights laws are far more mature than in Poland.
Instead of blabbing on constantly about the EU, why don't you try and solve the case using the existing Polish legal structures?
Or alternatively, don't do business in Poland.
Does anyone have any examples of successful cases being brought against Polish companies outside of Poland.
You'd be best to consult a lawyer for advice on this. Generally speaking though, these would concern large amounts of money.