I've recently been through this whole process of getting a passport, PESEL and ID card as a UK citizen of Polish origin... What I did was take the confirmation of citizenship to the Polish consulate in London, fill out the application form for a passport, give them the photos + money + covering letter and then wait for the passport to arrive in the post (2 months later). The passport already had my PESEL in it. At no time did I have to give them an address in Poland.
Several months later I took the passport + proof that I had a permanent address in Poland (I used the land registry document of some property I own here) + photos + filled out form from my local Magistrat + money and 4 weeks later I picked my ID document (dowód osobisty). I believe that if you live overseas, you don't have to give a permanent address (meldunek) in Poland, but you should check with the consulate if that's true.
The only thing I think you need an ID card for in Poland is to register a car, but a Polish passport seems to work for everything else.
I also hear that they are going to abolish this ridiculous rule that means you need a registered address next year, so the ID cards won't have to carry it.
for a pesel i believe you need a resident card and be based at a Polish property for more than one year.
This may be true for foreigners, but it's not true for newly-minted Poles.