I think you can see what I mean, some of the phrases go out of their way to have as few words to say the most, and in doing, make the phrase nonsense.
The thing is you are considering it from an English viewpoint. If you look at things from a Polish viewpoint you find similar problems with English.
"I'm on the train" maybe if you are in India or Africa, but in Europe you are inside a train.
"The plane takes off" takes what? where? it doesn't "put on" Can't imagine a 747 dancing to 'The Stripper" It doesn't 'take' anything.
But you could say "The plane takes itself into to the air"
Trying to make sense of it from an English point doesn't always work (or you have to stretch it). Also, the simple matter of rules of word order come into effect.
A Chinese guy once asked me why English has past tenses: "Why you say, 'I went to shop yesterday'" (note he didn't use 'do', it's a pointless word) "We say, 'I go to shop... I go to shop today, I go to shop yesterday, I go to shop tomorrow.'"
So, faced with such logic, how can I explain why it is important to have a past tense in English when a few million Chinese manage life and the Olympic Games without one?
OK, some of your examples
Jestem cały dzień zajęty. I’m busy the entire day.
here it has gone off a bit, what is wrong with saying’ jestem zajęty cały dzień
Because time phrases fit into a different structure in Polish. I mean, could you say "I am the whole day busy" or "I the whole day am busy"? You could, but it sounds weird.
Kupuję narzeczonemu prezent. I’m buying my fiancé a present. kupuję mój narzeczonemu prezent
Try "I bought my car for 10 pounds" or "I bought for ten pounds my car" or "I bought for my car ten pounds".
Zabrali mi telewizor. They took away my television set. why say away when there is no word for away?
You don't have to say 'away' in English either. But you would to emphasize the television going some distance, maybe never to return, rather than to the next room. The 'away' just shows it is to another place, possible unknown.
Rzuc czymś we mnie, moźe ci będzie lepiej. Throw something at me, maybe you’ll feel better. where is the word’ feel’ how do I know what it is supposed to know.
Well is it that you will be better or only feel that way (it might not be real)?