What is an active verb?
An active verb in which the subject does something (as opposed to experiences something or is in a state). Now that I look it at a second time I realize I made a stupid, stupid mistake. That should be 'all imperfective verbs'.
What is a transitive verb?
A verb which can have an object. The difference between transitive and intransitive verbs in English has largely disappeared but it's important in Polish.
In English the verb 'to exist' is intransitive because it has a subject but no object.
The verb 'to create' however is transitive becuase it has a subject and an object
Tom (subject) created (verb) a new kind of bagel (object).
Are verbs either active or transitive or are some neither?
My point was that the criteria for verbs having active or passive participles is different
imperfective verbs have active pariciples (perfective verbs don't)
transitive verbs have passive participles (intransitive verbs don't)
What is an adjective present participle?
The woman standing on the street corner is my aunt.
here 'standing' would be translated as stojąca, it's an adjective that modifies a noun (woman).
What is an adverbial present participle?
Seeing my aunt sell herself on the street, I almost had a heart attack.
here 'seeing' is an adverbial participle, it doesn't modify a noun but it's part of subordinate clause.
What is a passive participle?
My aunt was arrested for selling herself on the street.
here 'arrested' is a passive participle desribing the subject of a passive sentence.
In Polish this is more widely used as a normal adjective than it is in English. Often passive participles that act as adjectives are placed after the noun in English.
The book written by Edgar Allan Poe. (written here is a passive participle).
Does that help any?