While "dylemat" describes a problem and "rozterka" describes an emotional state, they can be used equivalently in 99.9% of cases
A risky statement. Would you say, for example, "mamy tutaj do czynienia z poważną rozterką" instead of "mamy tutaj do czynienia
z poważnym dylematem"? Would you replace "dylemat moralny" with "rozterka moralna"? They can sometimes be used equivalently,
but cetainly not in "99.9% of cases".
The words "dylmat" and "rozterka" not only have different meanings, as it was explained before, but also the usage differs...
"Mam rozterkę" and "Mam dylemat" mean precisely the same
"Mam rozterkę" is dodgy usage. The proper expression would be "jestem w rozterce".
that I need to make a difficult decision and don't know/hesitate which option to choose.
One difference may be that in case of "dylemat" you have TWO
options (two equally important options, according
to the dicitonary), whilst "rozterka" may involve three or more options. The other difference is that the two options of "dylemat"
are not only equally important, but also both alternatives are rather unpleasant. So, a man making a choice between buying
a Ferrari and a Lamborghini can hardly say that he has "dylemat" (not in Polish anyway, maybe in English it would be proper
usage, I don't know). So, to sum things up - for example:
- if your wife is giving a birth to a child, something goes wrong and the doctor asks you, if he should save your wife or the baby,
then "masz dylemat" (and a very serious one at that);
- if you have a day off work, and you can't decide if you should play football, go to a restaurant with your girlfriend, invite
you buddies for a game of bridge or simply read books all day, then "jesteś w rozterce" (not "masz rozterkę", as I mentioned
earlier) not "masz dylemat", because there are more than two options and they are all quite pleasant (of course, "rozterka" may
also be used for describing a situation involving a number of unpleasant choices, if there are more than two options).
They are also senior people who are simply annoyed that younger generations don't speak Polish in exactly the same
way people spoke 40 years ago, which they consider canon of proper Polish.
Interesting theory, Koala. So, not only do you undermine the great professors' expertise, but you also expose
the psychological roots of their behaviour. Quite interesting indeed, but I'm afraid we are moving dangerously
from a linguistic discussion into the area of stand-up comedy with statements like one quoted above :D
Or do you really think the modern meaning of "dziewica" and "kutas" is incorrect?
That is a superficial analogy. "Dziewica" and "kutas" are examples of meaning change within Polish vocabulary
and there is no foreign influence here, whilst in case of "ciężko powiedzieć" the theory about it being an anglicism
is a very valid one.
Well, the Internet edition of Słownik Języka Polskiego PWN lists one of the meanings of "ciężki" as "wymagający dużego wysiłku",
and sometimes it can be used in such context, i.e. "ciężka praca", "ciężko pracować" (not "trudno pracować" :-)), but still in case
of the expression "ciężko powiedzieć" we should rely on the opinion of the most revered Polish Philology professors, and consider
it a heavy colloquialism at best, or simply incorrect usage based on a vulgar anglicism.