Here comes my translation of a summary of the article:
Parada bękartów. Nieślubne dzieci polskich władców do końca XVII wieku, Michael Morys-Twarowski.
(Parade of bastards. Illegitimate children of Polish rulers until the end of 17th c.)
You will notice that not much was usually said about bastards [in Poland]. They are mentioned scarcely in the sources. We do not even know much about offsprings of the very amorous Casimir the Great apart from the fact that he mentioned his two natural sons in his will.
The situation changes in the sixteenth century, when - according to European standards - the rulers admitted to illegitimate children and protected them their future. A century later (Counter-Reformation), again, despite the greater number of sources, if it was not for the adventurous lives of Count Vasenau and Brisacier, we would not know anything about the natural children of our rulers.
The breakthrough came in the first half of the eighteenth century. The offspring of Augustus II the Strong proudly entered national and European salons, becoming a kind of equivalent of today's celebrities. Those were very different times. Marshal Mauricy Saski or Countess Anna Orzelska were positioned way above the earlier royal bastards suspended in a vacuum. On the one hand - because of their royal father they had been associated with the top layer of the society, but on the other hand - their illegitimacy pushed them down to the very bottom.
A spectacular picture of this dichotomy is a problem with the names of illegitimate children of our monarchs. Sometimes they are known by the term "syn króla" (son of the king), and sometimes they took a surname close to the ancestral surname. Such problem has even affected Jan, the son of Zygmunt Stary (Sigismund the Old). He was not known as Jan Jagiellończyk (John of Jagiellon) but as Jan z Ksiażąt Litewskich (Jan of the Dukes of Lithuania).
Parade of bastards. Illegitimate children of Polish rulers until the end of 17th c., Michael Morys-Twarowski.
When comparing the amount of illegitimate offspring of Polish and French kings, then our rulers presents rather poorly. You have to remember again that statistic overstates Augustus II the Strong, the father almost half of Polish bastards. Among the illegitimate children of Polish rulers we have bishops, counts and countess, various kinds rioters, and even the tax collector ...
Not much is known about them, and they were variously treated, depending on the period - ranging from shameful anonymity to a status comparable with that of today's celebrities.
One of them was Herman Maurycy Saski
(fr. Maurice de Saxe) (1696 -1750), Marshall and later Marshall General of France. Maurice was born at Goslar, an illegitimate son of August the Strong, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony, and the Countess Maria Aurora of Königsmarck. He was the first of eight extramarital children whom August acknowledged, although as many as 354 are claimed by sources, including Wilhelmine of Bayreuth, to have existed.
Another was Countess Anna Karolina Orzelska
(1707-1769) - an adventuress and Polish noblewomen, the illegitimate daughter of August II the Strong, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland and Henriette Rénard, a wine merchant from Lyon running his business in Warsaw. On 19 September 1724, August the Strong officially acknowledged Anna Karolina as his daughter and gave her the title of Countess Orzelska (Polish: Hrabina Orzelska, German: Gräfin Orzelska).
to be continued - by anyone who wants to chip in