well, first of all (if you want to know Polish cheese) try the ones mady by Polish companies, not all those Danone, Hochland etc. that might have their factories here, but still use their French/German/international recipes :)
- typically Polish is "twaróg" (white cheese)
- then we have "serek/twarożek wiejski" (or "Grani") - similar to cottage cheese, it can be plain (just twaróg, sour cream, salt) or with some vegetables (szczypiorek is the most common)
- decent products of other types (IMHO) - Lazur (blue cheese), Turek (Camembert/Brie)
- I'm not keen of Polish versions of hard cheese (we call it "yellow") - you know Ementaler, Gouda, Edam or similar
- I like (but not too often) "twaróg wędzony" (smoked white cheese) - "twaróg wędzony" is not the same as "ser wędzony"!
- if you want to feel the old times (communist era) try "ser(ek) topiony" (again by Polish companis, like SerTop for example, not Hochland), which for years was the most popular, because it was the only type widely disponible.
- another "relics" from the past, even more connected to those times is "serek homogenizowany" (plain, not vanilla or fruit taste), warning for vegetarians, they probably use gelatine from cows/pigs for it, so I wouldn't recommend, besides you'll have troubles in finding it, it's almost "extinct"