8. According to our research that gifts such as Vodka, Flowers, Dessert should be given to the dinner host, but never carnations or white flowers, lilies. Are there any qualms in the Polish culture about certain themes, colors, words, etc. ?
In Poland, as opposed to North America, cut flowers are offered in odd numbers, so you can even give a single flower. But this rule applies only to small number of flowers: one, three, five, seven, etc. and is of no importance for bigger bouquets. This rule is not due to a superstition of any sort, but it is due to compositional consideration - three flowers look better than two in a bouquet, five look better than four and so on. This guide also applies to grouping flowers with similar features - preferable composition are groups of three or five flowers. It is of no importance for large bouquets because then the number of flowers is unnoticeable and the composition principles are not ruined.
However, even number of cut flowers is usually reserved for funeral ceremonies.
Avoid giving flowers that are specific to certain circumstances. For example, do not offer chrysanthemums or calla lilies (Pl: kalie) to your friends, because they are associated with funeral ceremonies - unless they are their favourite flowers and you know for sure that they will not evoke any unpleasant associations. Carnations could as well to be avoided, because for many people of the older generation, they are associated with communism; they were the only flowers readily available everywhere then.
To avoid blunders, you might want to know what is the symbolism of flowers and of their colours. This is not a rigid binding canon, but if a recipient of a bouquet attaches heavy weight to such symbolism, it is better to avoid unnecessary embarrassment. It is good to know, for example, that the white colour indicates innocence, red - hot feelings, and yellow - jealousy.
Formerly it was thought that a bouquet of red flowers, especially roses and carnations, could be only given to a woman by a man of her life. Today, this rule is not adhered to rigorously. But it is worth to know the "language of flowers", especially when you are shy and you have problems to verbally express your feelings. At the same time, please remember that these days trends and habits change rapidly, so the symbolism of flowers should be treated with tongue in cheek.
Here is a link, in Polish, to a very long list of various flowers and their associated symbols, asflor.pl/mowa.htm
Personally, I never cared for such symbols and offered flowers, which I liked myself, for example freesias. But here are some examples:
Freesia - Give me your love
White Freesia - Delicacy, only with you
Red Freesia - I'm happy with your presence
Lilac freesia - You intimidate me
Pink freesia - Let us dream, flirt