Cholera actually became a swear word in Poland as the word for the disease Cholera. It was such a feared disease and so many died from it that it became a frightening word or a 'bad' word. Cholera.
'Cholera' is quite innocuous. Actually, I'd put it among the very few expletives that will not raise anyone's eyebrows when used in a cultured conversation.
The translation of "bastard" only applies to "ty cholero!", but you hear this word more often in sentences like "Cholera, I've forgotten my keys again", "Cholera, where is it? I can't find it."
A nice read anyway.