its was your grandma
no my grandma but great grangmother (mother of my grandmother
). Functional illiteracy, żelazny? ;P
Do you know what're you talking about ?
according to wikipedia illiteracy rate in 30s in Poland was 23%... of course it was related with the partioned Poland policy.
In 1914 in Russian Partition illiteracy rate was up to 55%, in Galcja it was 40% and in Prussian part only 5%. So it wasn't so uncomman as you may think. Of course people who born between 1910-1939 are fully literated, so in 1960 the illitarecy rate was only 2,7% and in 1978 only 1,2%.
Many people in comments below the article olso say that poverty was common those days. I'm suprised that you can't accept that fact.
Ah, come on, even the Jews were poor back then ;) ;)
about the Jews. Some of PF could be intrested that the author of asrticle wrote that in Poland was only ECONOMICAL antisemitism not racist antisemitism or connected with christian faith. Too bad there is no more M-G with us to read it and comment it.