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Examples of Polish Time cases?

13 Aug 2007 /  #1
wieczorem - in the evening
rano - in the morning
po poludniu - in the afternoon

Which case is involved here?

By the way, are there polish letters available on the site?
glowa 1 | 291  
13 Aug 2007 /  #2
you won't get this answer easily, I've just tried to match cases and honestly won't dare bringing it here. too much of a guess. what do you need it for?

something tells me that these three answer the question 'when' instead of any of the question that define cases. this means that most likely trying to match a case may be wrong by definition.

yes, Polish letters ara available, as long as you're able to type them
OP Willene  
13 Aug 2007 /  #3
thought so - just wanted to make sure

do you have to have polish letters downloaded or do you use shortcuts? where can i find out?
glowa 1 | 291  
13 Aug 2007 /  #4
well, in windows control panel in language section you can add Polish-programmes keyboard layout and then you use right-Alt and the related letter to have a Polish one. search the forum, there has been a topic, or two on this subject.
OP Willene  
13 Aug 2007 /  #5
Michal - | 1,865  
13 Aug 2007 /  #7
wieczorem - in the evening
rano - in the morning
po poludniu - in the afternoon

wieczorem is using the instrumental case
rano, morning or in the morning-nominative case
po poludniu is in the afternoon and uses the prepositional case

Again, I advice people never to make downloads-you will only pick up other people's nasty viruses.
HAL9009 2 | 304  
14 Aug 2007 /  #8
Er, what is the prepositional case?

My grammar book tells me that Polish has the following cases to chose from:
Vocative (seldom used)

Po południu is I believe the locative case
Krzysztof 2 | 973  
15 Aug 2007 /  #9
Yeah, it's locative, and it's because of the preposition "po" which (probably) requires this case.

And "rano" is a bit more complicated, because this exists both as an adverb and a noun.
Using it here as a noun in nominative case wouldn't make sense (you would need another grammatical case), so I'm sure it's an adverb here

(to support this opinion: it can have grades, comparitive is "raniej" which isn't very common, but gramatically correct, I don't have time to browse for the ethymology, but "rano" probably meant "early" in Old Polish, someone who knows Russian could cofirm if it still has that meaning in Russian)
Michal - | 1,865  
15 Aug 2007 /  #10
Po południu is I believe the locative case

Yes, it is what I called the prepositional case. Hence po poludniu, in the afternoon.
Wieczorem is in the instrumental case and means during the evening.
Rano is a neutral noun in its dictionary form i.e. the nominative case. It does indeed come from the Russian as does a lot of Polish words.
Krzysztof 2 | 973  
15 Aug 2007 /  #11
I didn't say it comes from Russian, maybe it's an old Slavic word which remained in the old meaning meaning in Russian, while in Polish it gradually changed its meaning
Michal - | 1,865  
16 Aug 2007 /  #12
wieczorem - in the evening
rano - in the morning
po poludniu - in the afternoon

Anyway, I answered this question some way back.
3 Mar 2009 /  #13
using time related nouns you mostly use intrumental (latem, wieczorem, czasem)
or prepositional construction (w dzień, po południu) - then it is the preposition that dictates the case
rano is an exception - becaused it evolved from an adverb meaning 'early' into a noun
Russian 'rano' never changed meaning and it still stands for 'early'
you can substitute rankiem (which is not that often encountered in everyday speach though) for 'rano' and this is ('rankiem') an intstrumental of 'ranek'

Polish people would use 'ranek' or 'poranek' to shy away from using declinated forms of 'rano'. 'Rano' is on the verge of actually not being 'declined' (i'm not sure there is such word in English with this sort of meaning) though there exist forms like 'do jutra rana' 'untill tomorrow morning' or as a sentence 'See you tomorrow morning'; 'nad ranem' 'at dawn' roughly - though 'o świcie' - is more of 'at dawn' counterpart.

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